A Background to Engineering Design by Peter Polak (auth.)

By Peter Polak (auth.)

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When A and L are at right angles, the output speed is greatest and the force is least. At other angles the effect is as for a shorter arm whose length is equal to the offset. When the offset is zero, we get zero speed but infinite force, called toggle action (figure 49). 33 (a ) Figure 41. ( b ) -~ I ~---- . \ ""'- ' I " . _ ' , I ""'\ ' / ' ""-. _""' "'-- ""--"" "-': ~ \. I ( c ) -~ Figure 43. Figure 42. Ackermann geometry c:{;~·~ I \ Figure 45. Anti- dive and anti- squat Front view Side-force + Ground- reaction Figure 46.

Rigidity is somewhat related to melting point and to density, a relationship no doubt originating in the atomic structure. Tungsten and its carbide are over twice as rigid as steel, with chromium and carbon fibre in between. Copper and zinc, magnesium and titanium support this rough rule. Young's modulus is appreciably temperature-dependent. Strength is related to crystalline slip-planes and defects rather than to fundamental structures so it should not surprise us that very similar rigidity is found in a soft pure metal and the same metal strengthened by work-hardening or by alloying.

S. P. a k r Ultimate tensile strength, load/original cross-sectional area, MN/m 2 which is also N/mm 2 Young's modulus, tensile or compressive stress/strain, MN/m 2 • Note that scientifically speaking GN/m 2 should have been used but can lead to errors. S: to obtain tons/in. 2 divide by 15; to obtain thousands oflb/in. 2 multiply by 150; to get kgf/cm 2 multiply by 10. tC) Thermal conductivity W/m °C, the heat flow through a metre cube with 1 °C temperature drop, conductive heat flow being proportional to cross-sectional area and temperature gradient Electrical resistivity, 11n em, the resistance of a 1 em cube in microhms.

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