A Prehistory of the North: Human Settlement of the Higher by John F. Hoffecker

By John F. Hoffecker

For the 1st time lately, we've a synthesis of the most recent pondering and discoveries through a more youthful pupil with an authoritative seize of the topic. This publication is a crucial contribution to the overall literature of human prehistory, certain for its entire assurance of the circumpolar regions.—Brian Fagan, writer of The lengthy summer time: How weather replaced Civilization

"A uniquely authoritative, hugely readable, and well-illustrated account of the way stone-age humans controlled to colonize the some distance North."—Richard G. Klein, Stanford University

Early people didn't easily waft northward from their African origins as their skills to deal with cooler climates advanced. The preliminary payment of areas like Europe and northern Asia, in addition to the later move into the Arctic and the Americas, truly happened in really swift bursts of growth. A Prehistory of the North is the 1st full-length examine to inform the complicated tale, spanning virtually million years, of ways people inhabited the various coldest locations on earth.

In an account wealthy with illustrations, John Hoffecker strains the background of anatomical variations, vitamin adjustments, and technological advancements, similar to garments and shield, which allowed people the ongoing skill to push the limits in their habitation. The ebook concludes through exhibiting how within the previous couple of thousand years, peoples residing within the circumpolar zone—with the exception of western and imperative Siberia—developed a thriving maritime economy.

Written in nontechnical language, A Prehistory of the North offers compelling new insights and important info for pros and scholars.

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Although increased head size reduces heat loss,27 the expansion of brain volume observed in Homo heidelbergensis is present among the African specimens and is probably unrelated to latitude. An exception is a lower leg bone (tibia) recovered in 1993 from Boxgrove. The specimen had to be reconstructed from fragments and is missing both its proximal and its distal ends, but provides a basis for estimating the length of the original lower leg bone, as well as the size and weight of the individual.

Despite the lack of obvious cold adaptations in their record, there is reason to believe that the earliest Europeans may have developed some special means of living in higher-latitude environments that set them apart from their southern contemporaries. However ameliorated by local conditions and warm-climate oscillations, Western Europe must have presented some challenges to its first human inhabitants. 7 Our inability to detect cold adaptations may be due largely to the fragmentary character of the record.

Moreover, they are often found in association with animal bones that exhibit traces of tool damage. 6 million years ago). Oldowan tools are simple and confined to flaked cobbles and pebbles— often labeled “core tools”— or modified stone flakes. Few if any of them seem to reflect a design based on a mental template, and most of the tool types identified by archaeologists may be imposed on a continuum of variation by the modern human brain. Many of the pebble “tools” appear to have been created simply in order to obtain sharp flakes.

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