Animals in Ritual and Economy in a Roman Frontier Community: by Maaike Groot

By Maaike Groot

This quantity explores the position of animals within the rural groups of Civitas Batavorum within the first to 3rd centuries advert. Large-scale excavations of 2 settlements and a cremation cemetery in Tiel-Passewaaij have yielded an animal bone assemblage of round 30,000 fragments, and a priceless reference catalog of the targeted animal deposits is incorporated right here. the writer additionally investigates using animals in funerary and different rituals, in addition to the position of farm animals within the neighborhood economic system and within the creation of surplus items for the Roman market.   

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39 The theory of the Romans being responsible for the size increase in cattle both belittles the animal husbandry expertise of local people and projects a modern appreciation of large cattle on the past. 29 Lauwerier 1988, 129. 35 Kooistra 1996, 72-73, 125. 30 Lauwerier 1988, 132-133. 36 Van Driel-Murray 2003, 205-206. 31 Lauwerier 1988, 136-140. 37 Lauwerier 1988, 15; Robeerst 2004, 83-84. 32 Lauwerier 1988, 161. 38 Lauwerier 1988, 15. 33 Roymans 1996, 82-83. 39 Lauwerier 1988, 168-169.

58 The first half of the 1st century AD was a period during which both this knowledge and money itself spread rapidly through the Dutch River Area. Batavian soldiers and ex-soldiers played a crucial role in this process. At this time, Batavian troops were stationed in Germania Inferior. During visits to their home villages, part of their army wages would be left behind. Roman coins dating to this period are frequently found in rural settlements. More crucial is that the soldiers would pass on their knowledge about how money could be used.

70 Silver 1969; Habermehl 1975. 74 O’Connor 1989. 71 O’Connor 2000, 95. 75 Grant 1982. 72 Amorosi 1989, 11.  the decision was made to use Grant’s method for Passewaaijse Hogeweg despite the consequence this would have on the comparability of our data. 76 For mandibles with no missing molars, a mandible wear stage was established. For incomplete mandibles, the most likely mandible wear stage was estimated by comparison with Grant’s tables 2-4. 77 Hambleton’s tables include absolute ages, which are used in this study.

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