Appraisal and Repair of Claddings and Fixings by Harrison, Peter; Wilson, Michael

By Harrison, Peter; Wilson, Michael

This booklet is a realistic advisor to the detection and therapy of faults in claddings and fixings on structures. It units out the issues curious about universal cladding structures for constructions, and relates those difficulties to all of the fabrics used: stone, masonry, concrete and glass-reinforced composites

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Sample text

Restraint straps and angles may also be badly deformed by the movement of heavy panels. The fixing of GRC and GRP panels is usually similar to that of precast panels. However, there is one important difference: precast panels, if adequately reinforced, can be suspended from top fixings; GRC and GRP must be bottom-supported. 53 APPRAISAL AND REPAIR Support Compression joint Restraint Support Fig. 17. Standard support and restraint Natural stone includes marble, granite, slate, limestone and sandstone.

Natural stone greater than 50 mm thick Failure of heavy natural stones may usually be attributed to the omission of cramps, the non-location of dowels or a lack of movement joints. The latter is a prime cause; the remedy is to 31 APPRAISAL AND REPAIR remove the stones and refix. Occasionally the stone may fail because it has been wrongly bedded, but this is rare. 5. Brickwork/timber frame Although not specifically covered in this book, some general points can be made about this combination. The important thing to watch is the relative shrinkage movement between timber and brickwork; this movement can be very substantial, and ties must be capable of resisting the loads specified as well as the degree of movement expected.

The failure is always in the concrete, never in the bolt or channel, provided the loads are such that the bolt sizes are 12 — 16 mm in diameter. What such tests show is that it is essential to ensure the adequate bonding of the straps • • • straps should certainly be bent back (the angle seems immaterial, provided the strap is not straight) the straps should preferably be set behind reinforcement bars there should be an adequate distance between the centre of the channel and the concrete free edge.

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