Archaeology, Artifacts and Antiquities of the Ancient Near by Oscar White Muscarella

By Oscar White Muscarella

'Archaeology, Artifacts and Antiquities of the traditional close to East' follows the evolution of the author’s scholarly paintings and pursuits and is split into numerous different types of interrelated fields. the 1st half offers essentially with excavations and linked artifacts, concerns in historic geography and the id of historical websites in northwest Iran, the author’s learn regarding the tradition and chronology of the Phrygian capital at Gordion in Anatolia, and the chronology and Iranian cultural family of a domain within the Emirate of Sharjah. half is wide-ranging and contains chapters on Aegean and historic close to jap cultural and political interconnections, the position of fibulae in revealing cultural and chronological issues, and the gender-determined utilization of parasols and their attractiveness in excavated contexts. There also are articles particularly occupied with “Plunder tradition” and the forgery of either items and their alleged proveniences.

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3, pp. , fig. 5. the tumuli at sé girdan: a preliminary report 37 but the same general idea—an encircling of the tumulus with stones— seems to be in evidence. And it is this feature that particularly relates the Sé Girdan tumuli to those known in Europe. An important difference may be seen in the fact that it was normal for a European tumulus to have a tomb built directly under its center. One tumulus known to me from England that has a feature recognized at Sé Girdan is a long barrow at Skendleby in Lincolnshire.

8cm. long and 3mm. thick; it flares out slightly from a width of 3cm. 35cm. at the outer edge. Each axe has a shaft hole close to the back part of the weapon, a single oblique point forming the rear, and an outward-flaring blade. 5 cm. The north-south trench was excavated for a length of 10 meters, measuring south from the tomb edge, down to the level of the top of the tomb. 5 meters south of the inner edge of the tomb we cleared an irregular section of rubble stones, three stones and 90 cm. 75 meters north of these stones was a single stone sticking out of the west balk.

Thick. Those of stone included 31 round carnelian beads with a slight double carination (10), similar to but slightly larger than some of the gold examples, 6mm. in diameter and 2mm. 5mm. in diameter and 4mm. in height. In addition there was one simple flat bead apparently made of tortoise shell (11), 5 mm. 5mm. in height. In the eastern part of the southern half of the chamber we found one flat bronze adze and three bronze axe heads, all of the same type, but each made in a separate mold (Figure 14).

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