Betaine : chemistry, analysis, function and effects by Victor R Preedy, Vinood B Patel, Kosha Mehta, R A

By Victor R Preedy, Vinood B Patel, Kosha Mehta, R A Munoz-Clares, V S Melissas, T A Garrow, E E Howell, A Crego, M Curtis, P A Tatke, L Servillo, J Swierczynski, N C Danbolt, M Hiramatsu, M M Murphy, K K Kharbanda, H Zhu, H Y Chung, Kaisa Olli, Stuart Craig

Betaine is greatly disbursed in vegetation and animals and has a task as an osmolyte and as a cofactor in methylation in liver metabolism. it's been proven to guard inner organs, increase vascular threat elements and increase functionality. The growing to be physique of facts exhibits that betaine is a vital nutrient for the prevention of continual illness. This quantity surveys the present nation of play in those and different components of curiosity, together with its position in one-carbon metabolism, tissue biochemistry and interactions with folate and different biomolecules. The research of betaines utilizing assorted options is roofed, as is the functionality and results within the physique.

Written through a professional foreign group, this booklet presents a desirable perception for people with an curiosity within the results of betaine on health and wellbeing and the nutrition. it's going to charm throughout disciplines yet particularly to dietary and meals scientists, future health pros and researchers.

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H. and Stutte, G. , 2001. Glycine betaine accumulation, ionic and water relations of red-beet at contrasting levels of sodium supply. Journal of Plant Physiology. 158: 767–776. , Nanmori, T. , 2006. Transcriptional response of glycinebetaine-related genes to salt stress and light in leaf beet. Plant Biotechnology. 23: 317–320. , Takabe, T. , 2002. Functional characterization of betaine/proline transporters in betaine-accumulating mangrove. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277: 18373–18382. , Takabe, T.

Betaine is a potent osmoprotectant in plants. Sugar beet is a halophyte plant and accumulates betaine significant amount, however, many important cereal plants such as rice do not accumulate betaine. Betaine is synthesized in chloroplast via two-step oxidation of choline, choline mono-oxygenase (CMO) and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH). The accumulation level of betaine is significantly induced by abiotic stress such as salt, drought and low temperature. In the tap root of sugar beet, sucrose, betaine and raffinose are the main constituents.

Sugar beet has high economic value because it is one of the two main sources of sucrose. The total production of sugar now approaches 140 Mt in 2000 (Draycott, 2006). In the beet sugar industry, GB has been thought to be “impurity” of sugar beet root sap that prevents crystallization of sucrose. 3%, GB is concentrated in molasses up to 3–6%. e. raffinose) contained in molasses became economically worth, so these compounds and remaining sucrose are purified by chromatographic separation. 1 GB as Compatible Solute The accumulation of GB at high concentration in halotolerant plants is explained in terms of the compatibility of the osmolyte with macromolecular structure and function (Rhodes and Hanson, 1993).

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