Borges and Memory: Encounters with the Human Brain by Rodrigo Quian Quiroga

By Rodrigo Quian Quiroga

Imagine the astonishment felt via neuroscientist Rodrigo Quian Quiroga whilst he came upon a superbly exact interpretation of his learn findings in a narrative written by means of the nice Argentinian fabulist Jorge Luis Borges fifty years past. Quian Quiroga stories the workings of the mind -- particularly how reminiscence works -- essentially the most advanced and elusive mysteries of technology. He and his fellow neuroscientists have at their disposal refined imaging gear and entry to info now not to be had simply two decades in the past. And but Borges looked as if it would have imagined the gist of Quian Quiroga's discoveries many years ahead of he made them. The name personality of Borges's "Funes the Memorious" recollects every thing in excruciatingly specific element yet is not able to understand summary principles. Quian Quiroga came upon neurons within the human mind that reply to summary techniques yet forget about specific information, and, spurred incidentally Borges imagined the implications of remembering each element yet being incapable of abstraction, he all started a look for the origins of Funes. Borges's widow, María Kodama, gave him entry to her husband's own library, and Borges's books led Quian Quiroga to reread previous thinkers in philosophy and psychology. He stumbled on that simply as Borges had maybe dreamed the result of Quian Quiroga's discoveries, different thinkers -- William James, Gustav Spiller, John Stuart Mill -- had might be additionally dreamed a narrative like "Funes." With Borges and Memory, Quian Quiroga has given us a desirable and obtainable tale concerning the workings of the mind that the nice author of Funes might take pleasure in.

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Predictors of manic recurrence were initial mood-incongruent psychotic features, lower premorbid occupational status, and initial manic presentation. Predictors of depression onset were higher occupational status, initial mixed presentation, and any comorbidity [24]. Targeting residual symptoms in maintenance treatment may represent an opportunity to reduce risk of recurrence of bipolar disorder. Another 2-year follow-up study of the clinical features associated with the risk of recurrence in patients with bipolar disorder receiving treatment found that 58% of patients subsequently achieved recovery [25].

In this study, factors associated with a shorter time to syndromal recovery for 50% of the subjects were female sex, shorter index hospitalization, and lower initial depression ratings. The 43% who achieved functional recovery were more often older and had shorter index hospitalizations. Within 2 years of syn- 32 T. Treuer and M. Tohen dromal recovery, 40% experienced a new episode of mania (20%) or depression (20%), and 19% switched phases without recovery. Predictors of manic recurrence were initial mood-incongruent psychotic features, lower premorbid occupational status, and initial manic presentation.

Although there is agreement among researchers that bipolar spectrum disorders are severe, chronic, and lifelong conditions, and that breakthrough depression usually presents higher risks for long-term treatment than mania, there are several methodological issues in the study of the natural course of bipolar disorder [2]. Despite a considerable amount of research, the course and outcome of bipolar disorder still remain highly unpredictable. Likewise, it is difficult to determine the effect of treatment on the natural course of bipolar disorder that, despite treatment, still involves multiple relapses and impaired psychosocial functioning [3].

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