Brain Imaging in Behavioral Neuroscience by N. D. Volkow, G. J. Wang, J. S. Fowler (auth.), Cameron S.

By N. D. Volkow, G. J. Wang, J. S. Fowler (auth.), Cameron S. Carter, Jeffrey W. Dalley (eds.)

This quantity highlights the notable new advancements in mind imaging, together with those who observe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET), that let us to non invasively examine the residing human mind in overall healthiness and in sickness. those technological advances have allowed us to acquire new and robust insights into the constitution and serve as of the fit mind because it develops around the existence cycle, in addition to the molecular make up of mind platforms and circuits as they advance and alter with age. New mind imaging applied sciences have additionally given us new insights into the motives of many universal mind problems, together with ADHD, schizophrenia, melancholy and Alzheimer’s illness, which jointly impact a wide section of the inhabitants. those new insights have significant implications for realizing and treating those mind problems, and are supplying clinicians with the 1st ever set of biomarkers that may be used to lead analysis and display screen remedy results. The advances in mind imaging during the last twenty years, summarized during this quantity, symbolize a huge develop in sleek biomedical sciences.

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Neuron 61:786–800 Johnson PM, Kenny PJ (2010) Dopamine D2 receptors in addiction-like reward dysfunction and compulsive eating in obese rats. Nat Neurosci 13:635–641 Kalivas PW (2009) The glutamate homeostasis hypothesis of addiction. Nat Rev Neurosci 10:561–572 Killgore WD, Yurgelun-Todd DA (2005) Body mass predicts orbitofrontal activity during visual presentations of high-calorie foods. Neuroreport 16:859–863 Food and Drug Reward 21 Kimura M, Satoh T, Matsumoto N (2007) What does the habenula tell dopamine neurons?

Although it would be several years later before a potential inverse relationship between D2-like receptor availability and vulnerability would be identified, the authors speculated that it was possible the lower D2-like receptor measures during abstinence were due to a predisposition of individuals with low D2-like receptor availability to use cocaine, rather than a consequence of chronic cocaine exposure. The studies described in the previous two sections indicate that low D2-like receptor availability increases vulnerability to use drugs and that chronic cocaine use further decreases D2-like receptor function (in males).

Am J Psychiatry 158:2015–2021 Volkow ND, Fowler JS (2000) Addiction, a disease of compulsion and drive: involvement of the orbitofrontal cortex. Cereb Cortex 10:318–325 Volkow ND, Fowler JS, Wolf AP, Hitzemann R, Dewey S, Bendriem B et al (1991) Changes in brain glucose metabolism in cocaine dependence and withdrawal. Am J Psychiatry 148: 621–626 Volkow ND, Fowler JS, Wang GJ, Hitzemann R, Logan J, Schlyer DJ et al (1993) Decreased dopamine D2 receptor availability is associated with reduced frontal metabolism in cocaine abusers.

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