Cancer — Between Glycolysis and Physical Constraint by Laurent Schwartz MD, PhD (auth.)

By Laurent Schwartz MD, PhD (auth.)

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Extra resources for Cancer — Between Glycolysis and Physical Constraint

Sample text

Single cells injected in the blood stream regroup after injection (7, 8) to form a cancerous clot. Treatments, which simply inhibit cell-to-cell attachment, drastically decrease the ability to form tumors (9,10). Just as for the graft of an organ, tumor cells only grow in syngeneic animals or in an immunosuppressed host (3,4). Tumor Cells Alone Are Not Enough for Cancer Diagnosis The diagnosis of infection is based on finding of a germ. On the contrary, the finding of a single "cancer cell" is not sufficient for a diagnosis of cancer.

We still speak of cancerous tissue and cancerous tumor transplants. Medical and biologic ideologies advance hand-in-hand. Alexis Carrel (1) focused his research on the organ rather than the cell, and in 1938 he wrote: "For the first time, medical science is capable of ap- prehending bodily structures in the fullness of their reality, of under- 16 2 Are Cancer Cells Malignant Per Se? standing how the organs form the organism, and how the organism grows, ages, heals its wounds, resists disease, and adapts itself with marvelous ease to changing environment:' To say that cancer results from extracellular anomalies and not from intracellular lesions is to revive old ideas and, at the same time, introduce a new state of affairs.

They modify "growth factors" and synthesize false nutrients, which cannot be digested and transformed into available energy for the cell. As a result, cell metabolism is reduced. If the cells select this type of "growth factor" for nourishment, they will ultimately starve to death. 26 3 Cell Growth: A Balance Between Glycolysis and Physical Constraint Like a motor, the cell consumes energy. Its nutrients are called lipids, proteins, and sugars by some (dieticians, endocrinologists, bacteriologists), cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors by others.

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