Cancer Grading Manual by Ivan Damjanov MD, PhD (auth.), Ivan Damjanov MD, PhD, Fang

By Ivan Damjanov MD, PhD (auth.), Ivan Damjanov MD, PhD, Fang Fan MD, PhD (eds.)

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2. Gale N, Kambic V, Michaels L, et al. The Ljubljana classification: a practical strategy for the diagnosis of laryngeal precancerous lesions. Adv Anat Pathol. 2000;7:240– 251. 3. Wiernik G, Millard PR, Haybittle JL. The predictive value of histological classification into degrees of differentiation of squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx and hypopharynx compared with the survival of patients. Histopathology. 1991; 19:411–417. 4. Janot F, Klijanienko J, Russo A, et al. Prognostic value of clinicopathologic parameters in head and neck squamous carcinoma: a prospective analysis.

Cytologically, this tumor has cells displaying enlarged nuclei, which can be round or oval, with an increase in chromatin pattern, occasional prominent nucleoli, and increased mitotic activity (2–10 mitoses per 10 hpf). • Poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma. At present, 2 distinct variants are included in this category: small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (SCNEC) and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC). The latter continues to be in dispute, and many authors contend that this tumor belongs in a different category, namely that of large cell/anaplastic carcinoma.

The glands are crowded, but still separated by connective tissue Table 7-1. Microscopic grading of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Degree of differentiation Features Well differentiated Moderately differentiated Poorly differentiated Resemblance to normal epithelium Keratin pearl formation Predominant cell population Intercellular bridges High resemblance Frequent Mature squamous Distinct Still recognizable as squamous Rare to none More basaloid, some squamous Focally retained Hardly recognizable as squamous None Undifferentiated Rare or none 7.

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