Case Files: Neuroscience by C. Toy ; Rahul Jandial ; Evan Y. Snyder

By C. Toy ; Rahul Jandial ; Evan Y. Snyder

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Resting membrane potential for neurons is at −65 mV and is maintained by the sodium-potassium pump. REFERENCES Bear MF, Connors B, Paradiso M, eds. Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain. 3rd ed. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2006. Kandel E, Schwartz J, Jessell T. Principles of Neural Science. 5th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2000. Zigmond MJ, Squire LR, Bloom FE, Landis SC, Roberts JL, eds. Fundamental Neuroscience. 2nd ed. San Diego, CA: Academic Press; 1999. ❖ CASE 4 A 37-year-old male has had several bouts of neurological deterioration which have each improved with time.

Hyperpolarizing phase Back to resting potential 36 CASE FILES: NEUROSCIENCE unopposed and drives the transmembrane potential past the resting potential and closer to the equilibrium potential for K+ ions. As the voltage-gated K+ channels close, the resting channels allow for the reestablishment of the resting membrane potential. Shortly after threshold is reached, there is a period of time where additional stimuli will not result in any action potential. This is termed the absolute refractory period and is owing to the already maximal opening of the Na+ channels.

D. 2] During a neuroscience laboratory exercise, you are experimenting with the response of a neuron to various electrical stimuli. You notice that there is a short time period following the action potential when no matter how much you depolarize the membrane, you cannot stimulate an action potential. What is the molecular mechanism responsible for this phenomenon? A. B. C. D. 3] Rapid depolarization Delayed rectifier current Repolarization Resting potential Undershoot hyperpolarization Inactivation of sodium channels Closing of voltage-sensitive sodium channels Opening of voltage-sensitive potassium channels Immediately following the time frame in the previous question is a time period when an action potential can be generated, but only when a larger than normal stimulus is applied.

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