Cellular Aspects of Smooth Muscle Function by C. Y. Kao (editor), Mary E. Carsten (editor)

By C. Y. Kao (editor), Mary E. Carsten (editor)

This ebook offers an up to date assessment of our knowing of gentle muscle and integrates molecular, mobile and physiological info with tissue and anatomical reviews. recognized researchers have written chapters giving exact studies of our present wisdom of the biochemistry, pharmacology, body structure, and anatomy of soft muscle. particularly, they hide the seven most crucial parts of delicate muscle functionality together with morphology, electrophysiology, mechanisms of electromechanical and pharmacomechanical coupling, calcium homeostasis, sign transduction, mechanics of contraction, and the contractile proteins.

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Whole-mount preparation of the urinary bladder of a guinea pig, showing muscle bundles of different sizes and orientations. Some intramuscular nerve ganglia are visible (arrows). 7X] C. Small intestine of a guinea pig sectioned parallel to the serosal surface, showing the circular and the longitudinal muscle, both in longitudinal section. The two muscle layers run orthogonal to each other, and between them is visible a strand of the my enteric plexus. [800 X] Morphology of smooth muscle 29 spread quickly from innervated cells to cells that are not directly innervated.

5. Dense bands Dense bands (or membrane-associated dense bodies) are structures linking the contractile apparatus to the cell membrane and, beyond the cell membrane, to the stroma or to other muscle cells. 4 |im in width; their length is difficult to measure Morphology of smooth muscle 21 but can exceed 1 jum. They are distributed over the entire cell surface, occupying 30-50% of the cell profile and even more along the tapering ends of the cell. In muscle cells of the large arteries, dense bands have a wedge shape (Biissow and Wulfhekel 1972) and penetrate deep into the sarcoplasm, an arrangement confirming the similarity and closeness (and, in this case, fusion) of dense bands and dense bodies (Figure 5).

Typically, a partial obstruction of the small intestine (by an ingrowing mass within the lumen, or by a surgical stenosis) causes accumulation of ingesta on the oral side and consequent distension: the muscle layers respond to this stimulus (whose main component is the stretch) and in time become considerably larger and thicker. In the urinary bladder, hypertrophy of the detrusor occurs when the urethral outlet is partially obstructed - for example, by an enlargement of the prostate gland. An entirely physiologic hypertrophy of smooth muscle takes place in the uterus during gestation.

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