Citizenship, Labour Markets and Democratization: Chile and by Louise Haagh (auth.)

By Louise Haagh (auth.)

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Sweden 3. Germany 4. France 5. Italy 6. Spain 7. United States 8. Japan 9. South Korea (1960s–) 10. Singapore (1960s–) 11. Chile (–1970) 12. Chile (1973–89) 13. Chile (1990–5). 1 Three dimensions of the development of citizens’ occupational rights Note: The period for Spain is 1975. See also Appendix E. cases indicate where countries tend to cluster around particular governance forms. We see that the welfare states are in a strong position along the y dimension, and the developmental states similarly placed along the x axis.

Finally, laissez-faire regimes – those that are weak on the state-indevelopment and social governance dimensions – will often be tied to bipolar party-political arrangements. This is likely because state policies are not embedded to the same extent within consociational agreements of different kinds. The USA, the United Kingdom, and post-Pinochet Chile are cases in point. In between there are the intermediary cases, such as pre-Allende Chile (pre-1970), as well as post-war France and Italy. In these cases interest organizations have not been strong enough to force a social democratic project on the state, and the state not developmental enough to institute a party- or system-hegemonic form of governance.

Issues that are not considered include the possibility of large pay differentials between firms, an individual’s effective property right over his/her skills, the effects of dismissal and mobility on human resources and on developmental freedom, and the question of who should bear the cost of investment risk-taking. 14 Human Resources and Market Reforms 27 Therefore, although self-management and occupational citizenship may be compatible, they are quite different. The distinction between them derives, in fact, from their emphasizing different aspects of labour freedom.

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