Computer Engineering. A DEC View of Hardware Systems Design by C. Gordon Bell, J. Craig Mudge, John E. McNamara, Kenneth H.

By C. Gordon Bell, J. Craig Mudge, John E. McNamara, Kenneth H. Olson

This e-book has been written for practising computing device designers, no matter if their area is microcomputers, minicomputers, or huge desktops. The publication makes use of the case learn approach to convey how all of the various factors (technology push, undefined, production, etc.) shape the real-world constraints and possibilities which impression desktop engineering. For examples, we now have used 30 DEC desktops, plus a few PDP-11-based machines outfitted at Carnegie-Mellon collage

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Sample text

Table 1 gives some idea of how circuit density (in elements) relates to actual function. The cost history of integrated circuits is reflected very dramatically in the cost history of a special class of integrated circuits, semiconductor memory. The semiconductor memory cost curves, given in Figure 7, are also interesting because of the important role of memory in past and future computer structures. 50. Two factors influence the cost of integrated circuits: density in bits per integrated circuit and cost per bit.

Linewidths have decreased from 10 microns in early large-scale integrated circuit chips to 6 microns in the LSI-11 chips, and more recently to 3 or 4 microns in Intel's 8086. Linewidths of less than a micron have been achieved at the research level, but they require electron beam techniques instead of present photographic methods of production. The processing techniques to create semiconductor materials have also been improved for better manufacturing yields (and lower costs). Circuit and device innovation (such as reducing the number of transistors per memory cell) have also contributed to density and yield increases.

11. 12. 13. 14. practice of computer engineering. However, in their construction, computers are electrical; and the discipline that has fundamental responsibility is electrical engineering. Thus, discussion of the Practice of Design View concludes with Table 5, a set of maxims compiled by Don Vonada, an experienced DEC engineer. Many other engineers in many other companies have developed similar sets of maxims. VIEW 7: THE BLAAUW CHARACTERIZATION OF COMPUTER DESIGN Another view is based on the work of Blaauw [1970].

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