Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World by Keith Brown, Sarah Ogilvie

By Keith Brown, Sarah Ogilvie

During this quantity, the world’s top specialists describe some of the languages of the area. it's envisioned that there
are greater than 250 demonstrated language households on the planet, and over 6800 specific languages, lots of which
are threatened or endangered. This quantity presents the main entire survey to be had on a large
proportion of those. It includes 377 articles on particular languages or language households drawn from the two
editions of the Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics (ELL). The articles describe the sounds, meaning,
structure, and relations relationships of the languages, and feature been selected to demonstrate the diversity and variety of
human language.

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For most of the Soviet period it was an autonomous republic. A wave of migrants out of Abkhazia after the Mongol incursions (14th century) removed the most divergent dialect, T’ap’anta, to the northern Caucasus (Karachay-Cherkessia). Consolidated there by Ashkharywa dialect speakers (17th and 18th centuries), today’s Abaza population descended from them. Following Russia’s conquest of the northwest Caucasus in 1864, most North West Caucasian speakers (including the now extinct Ubykhs) migrated to Ottoman lands, where the diaspora-communities (predominantly in Turkey) vastly outnumber the homelanders; even so, the surviving languages are endangered in all locations.

Greenberg (1983) went on to reconstruct the history of these properties by studying their genetic distribution. He hypothesized that (1), (3), and (4) are ultimately of Niger-Kordofanian origin, even though they are widely found in other African families, in particular in Nilo-Saharan languages. For (2), however, he did not find conclusive evidence for reconstruction, suggesting that it may not have had a single origin but rather that it arose in the area of the Central Sudanic languages of Nilo-Saharan and the Adamawa-Ubangi languages of Niger-Congo.

Malay and Creole Portuguese) being confined to the lexical domain (see below). The variationist/interlectalist position similarly downplays the role of the non-Germanic languages interfacing with Dutch at the Cape, identifying dialect-leveling/ convergence as the impetus behind the emergence of a new Dutch-based language. By contrast, the creolist view analyses Afrikaans as a semicreole, the product of interaction between the ‘creolizing’ and ‘decreolizing’ influences of the matrilectal Cape Dutch(es) and the Dutch-based pidgin(s) spoken respectively by the Cape’s European and non-European populations.

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