Contra Marcellum: Marcellus of Ancyra and Fourth-Century by Joseph T. Lienhard

By Joseph T. Lienhard

Marcellus of Ancyra (ca. 285-374) was once a arguable determine within the Trinitarian debate after Nicaea. He has usually been written off because the abnormal heretic who misunderstood the instructing of the Council of Nicaea and taught that the Godhead quickly extended right into a Dyad, after which right into a Triad, yet might, on the finish of time, agreement once more to a Monad. In different phrases, he supposedly taught that the Trinity used to be a short lived phenomenon. yet, based on the writer of this quantity, Marcellus used to be no longer basically serious about hypothesis at the Trinity; quite his main issue used to be with monotheism, and with the complete humanity of Christ. the following, Joseph T. Lienhard, S.J., stories the so-called Arian controversy of the fourth century from one well-defined perspective: Marcellus and his impression. The ebook exhibits that Marcellus, faraway from being remoted, used to be a part of a bigger theological tendency. between these who sympathized with him have been Athanasius of Alexandria, a lot of the western church, and bishops in Asia Minor and Egypt. Lienhard starts off through learning Marcellus's existence and the historical past of recent scholarship on Marcellus. He then examines the Arian controversy in phrases of 2 theological platforms in clash, known as "miahypostatic theology" and "dyohypostatic theology," reckoning on no matter if a procedure held that God is better referred to as one hypostasis or . Lienhard offers a whole research of Marcellus's theology, utilizing basically the definitely actual works of his that live to tell the tale, and strains the reactions to his teaching-from those that remained sympathetic to him, to people who rejected his theology outright, and at last to those that partly approved his theses. This e-book is a part of a bigger venture between students to reexamine and rewrite the heritage of the Arian controversy within the fourth century.

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Between the spring of 1675 and the summer of 1676 scores of New England towns were burned, their inhabitants attacked and killed. When King Philip himself was killed in August 1676, hostilities came to a rapid conclusion. Shortly thereafter New Englanders began to produce histories of the war, trying to understand what had happened and why. One of the first came from the pen of Increase Mather. Mather’s account painted a portrait of the violence unleashed on both sides: for Mather, New England had been both a recipient of God’s violence, delivered by the Wampanoags, and an agent of divinely sanctioned violence inflicted upon the natives.

Ibid. See also Charles Kimball, When Religion Becomes Evil: Five Warning Signs (New York: HarperCollins, 2002); Charles Selengut, Sacred Fury: Understanding Religious Violence, 2d ed. (2004; reprint, Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2008). 10. William T. Cavanaugh’s The Myth of Religious Violence: Secular Ideology and the Roots of Modern Conflict (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009) is essential reading for those interested in these issues. 11. Talal Asad, Genealogies of Religion: Discipline and Reasons of Power in Christianity and Islam (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993).

God’s choice to use Indians as agents of violence was not arbitrary.

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