Crystals: a handbook for schoolteachers ; written for the by E A Wood

By E A Wood

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Additional info for Crystals: a handbook for schoolteachers ; written for the Commission on Crystallographic Teaching of the International Union of Crystallography

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Further metamorphism of slate produces schist, a rock full of mica that glistens in the sunlight. 4. Boulders, pebbles, and sand. If you live where you do not see any big rock masses exposed for you to study, pick up any small bits that you can find. Often they are dirty on the outside, and sometimes their surfaces have been changed by the weather. Break them open to find a fresh surface. Unless you live on the side of a volcano, all of the pieces you find will be crystalline, that is, they will be composed entirely of crystals, although these may be small and with irregular boundaries.

They probably result from the fact that the habit of growth of the little ice crystal is very sensitive to small changes in humidity and temperature. The great student of snowflakes, Ukichiro Nakaya, has found that he can produce various types of growth, at will, in the laboratory, by controlling the conditions of temperature and humidity under which the little ice crystal is growing. In the turbulence of a snow storm, each crystal experiences many different changes of conditions during its period of growth.

When light passes through such a crystal, it is divided into two beams oscillating at right angles to each other. One of these has greater velocity than the other. When they come out of the crystal and pass through the second polarizer, they interfere with each other in a way similar to that of the two beams described in the section on bismuth crystals. Although the cause of the interference is different in this case, these colors are also called interference colors. The polarizers are especially useful for determining whether a bit of matter consists of a single crystal or more than one crystal.

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