Direct Digital Synthesizers: Theory, Design and Applications by Vankka J., Halonen K.

By Vankka J., Halonen K.

A huge benefit of a right away electronic synthesizer (DDS) is that its output frequency, section and amplitude will be accurately and speedily manipulated lower than electronic processor keep watch over. different inherent DDS attributes comprise the facility to track with tremendous high-quality frequency and part solution, and to speedily `hop' among frequencies. those mixed features have made the know-how renowned in army radar and communications structures. actually, DDS know-how was once formerly utilized virtually solely to high-end and armed forces purposes: it used to be expensive, power-hungry, tricky to enforce, and required a discrete excessive pace D/A converter. because of stronger built-in circuit (IC) applied sciences, they now current a achievable replacement to analog-based phase-locked loop (PLL) expertise for producing agile analog output frequency in customer synthesizer purposes. you could comprise diverse modulation features within the DDS through the use of electronic sign processing (DSP) tools, as the sign is in electronic shape. by means of programming the DDS, adaptive channel bandwidths, modulation codecs, frequency hopping and information premiums are simply accomplished. the flexibleness of the DDS makes it perfect for sign generator for software program radio. The electronic circuits used to enforce signal-processing features don't endure the results of thermal glide, getting older and part adaptations linked to their analog opposite numbers. The implementation of electronic useful blocks makes it attainable to accomplish a excessive measure of approach integration. fresh advances in IC fabrication know-how, rather CMOS, coupled with complex DSP algorithms and architectures are offering attainable single-chip DDS recommendations to complicated conversation and sign processing subsystems as modulators, demodulators, neighborhood oscillators, programmable clock turbines, and chirp turbines. The DDS addresses quite a few purposes, together with cable modems, dimension equipments, arbitrary waveform turbines, mobile base stations and instant neighborhood loop base stations. Direct electronic Synthesizers used to be written to discover attainable purposes for radio communique structures. it is going to have attraction for instant and wireline communique engineers, lecturers and scholars.

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The clock frequency is 450 MHz, power consumption is 18 W, and the phase accumulator width (j) is 28. The chirp rate is perfect except that there is always a level of quantization. 2). Another problem is the LPF group delay, especially at the high end of the band. If this becomes important in the application, a phase equalizer needs to be added to compensate for the filter group delay. 6 DDS Power Consumption an d Spurious Level Although the DDSs were invented decades ago [Tie71] they did not come to play a dominant role in wideband frequency generation until recently.

The output of the DDS is a pure sine wave in the above case. 8 DDS Power Consumption vs. Output Bandwidth. Data points based on references [Bel00], [QuS91], [Ana94], [Mad99], [NiB94], [Chapter 9], [Chapter 10], [Tan95a], [Mor99], [SaA94], [Tan95b], [Sau90], [Sci94], [Sta94]. 1 (see Appendix D) shows different recently reported DDS ICs. A comparison is difficult because it does not include other signal processing capabilities that these circuits have. These properties increase power consumption and area compared with the ’standard DDS’.

10. Glitch impulse and settling time. carrier-to-spur level is unchanged and only the position of the spurs has been permutated. 4 D/A-Converter Errors In high-speed and high-resolution (>10 bits, >50 MHz) DDSs, most of the spurs are generated less by digital errors (truncation or quantization errors), and more by analog errors in the D/A converter and the lowpass filter such as clock feedthrough, intermodulation, and glitch energy. The specifications of the D/A-converter are studied in detail because the D/A-converter is the critical component.

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