Domestic Architecture and the Use of Space: An by Susan Kent

By Susan Kent

Household structure and using area investigates the connection among the equipped atmosphere and the agency of house. The participants are classical and prehistoric archaeologists, anthropologists and designers, who from their diverse backgrounds may be able to supply a few very important and unique insights into this dating.

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The popes especially were faced with such dilemmas. Gregory I provisioned and led his Roman troops, providing an influential precedent. 63 In 849, Pope Leo I led an army against Muslim pirates at the mouth of the Tiber. 64 In the tenth century, Pope John XII was said to have defended the city of Rome with a sword in his hand. 65 As long as these clerics merely held weapons but did not actually use them, the fine line separating a miles christi from his secular counterpart could be said to be preserved, but the tension was clear.

Given the widespread danger of Viking and Islamic incursions, monasteries could not always be expected to wait for a responsible lord to solve their defensive problems for them or to grant them permission to do it for themselves. Adulterine fortifications were already a feature of the Carolingian landscape and continued to protect reli- ECCLESIASTICAL FORTIFICATION IN THE MIDDLE AGES gious and secular communities (but to vex rulers) into the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. These unauthorized castles might be torn down, appropriated by the crown, or retrospectively sanctioned.

There, a crenellated parapet surmounts the famous triple portal and rose window (Fig. 21). These defensive elements were included, in Abbot Suger's ECCLESIASTICAL FORTIFICATION IN THE MIDDLE AGES Figure zo. Candes, north porch. Figure zi. Saint-Denis, west front. "127 FORTRESS-CHURCHES AND FORTIFIED ABBEYS Most medieval churches were fortified in selected areas such as the precinct or the west entrance, but a few are especially remarkable in their fusion of protective and religious functions. Palace and castle chapels are prime examples of such a fusion.

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