Encyclopedia Of Materials Characterization - Surfaces, by Brundle C.R.
By Brundle C.R.
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Extra resources for Encyclopedia Of Materials Characterization - Surfaces, Interfaces, Thin Fi
Not a trace element method. Chemical state information Yes Depth probed 5-50 Depth profiling Yes, over the top 50 A; greater depths require sputter profiling Depth resolution A few to several tens ofA, depending on conditions A 5 mm to 75 pm; down to 5 pm in special instruments Sample requirements All vacuum-compatible materials; flat samples best; Lateral resolution size accepted depends on particular instrument Main uses Determinations of elemental and chemical state wmpositions in the top 30 A Instrument cost $200,000-$1,000,000, depending on capabilities Size 10 fi.
2 Raman spectroscopy is the measurement, as a function of wavenumber, of the inelastic light scattering that results from the excitation of vibrations in molecular and crystalline materials. The excitation source is a single line of a continuous gas laser, which permits optical microscope optics to be used for measurement of samples down to a few pm. Raman spectroscopy is sensitive to molecular and crystal structure; applications include chemical fingerprinting, examination of single grains in ceramics and rocks, single-crystal measurements, speciation of aqueous solutions, identification of compounds in bubbles and fluid inclusions, investigations of structure and strain states in polycrystalline ceramics, glasses, fibers, gels, and thin and thick films.
Physical quantities derivable from the measured parameter include the optical constants of bulk or filmed media, the thicknesses of films (from 1 to a few hundred nm), and the microstructural composition of a multiconstituent thin film. In general only materials with parallel interfaces, and with structural or chemical inhomogeneities on a scale less than about 1 / 10 the wavelength of the incident light, can be studied by ellipsometry. 1 The vibrational motions of the chemically bound constituents of matter have frequencies in the infrared regime.