Etiology of Cancer in Man by H. E. Kaiser (auth.), Arthur S. Levine (eds.)

By H. E. Kaiser (auth.), Arthur S. Levine (eds.)

This quantity experiences our present wisdom bearing on can­ numerous chapters speak about the contributions of genetic asp­ cer progress and development because it pertains to the etiology of ects, metabolism, endocrine-related facets and nutrients to human melanoma. As emphasised in Volumes I-V of this sequence, melanoma development. furthermore, our present wisdom con­ neoplastic ailments are multistep maladies. there are various cerning urbanization components, radiation, therapy-induced explanations for the looks of neoplastic illnesses. previous neoplasms, environmentally brought about neoplasms (e. g. , chapters within the sequence have reviewed molecular and mobile mesotheliomas brought on by way of asbestos) and malignant neo­ facets of tumor initiation, advertising and development to plasms in organ transplant recipients are summarized. the invasive and metastatic phenotype. Contributions to the The effect of AIDS on neoplasm improvement is re­ initiation and development of neoplastic ailments are made via seen from an epidemiologic point of view that explores mul­ typical positive factors of our surroundings and by means of its contaminants tiple aspects of immunity, infectious ailment, sexual habit and through dietary components. Neoplastic ailments exhibit a dis­ and blood transfusion. different chapters examine the in­ tinct courting to various environmental stimuli and fluence of the host immune reaction in oncogenesis and the to illnesses of a non-neoplastic nature. for instance, familial dating among atherosclerotic plaques and tumors.

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This 3T3 assay has identified a number of oncogenes including several which are related to the viral transforming gene, v-ras. When the cellular 3T3 transform- 4: Genetic evaluation of ontologically related neural crest tumors ing gene cloned from a bladder carcinoma was studied; it was shown to have mutated to an activated form by a single base pair mutation of the cellular gene (44). Although this activated c-ras gene was able to transform NIH 3T3 cells, it was not able to transform primary rat embryo cells.

Gene expression in neuroblastoma Several oncogenes have been studied in both neuroblastoma tumor tissue and cell lines. Activated proto-oncogenes from both the ras and myc families have been identified. A new member of the ras family, N-ras, was first identified in the human neuroblastoma cell line, SK-N-SH, by its ability to transform NIH 3T3 cells (50). This activated N-ras gene from the neuroblastoma cell line has been shown to have a single base pair change when compared to the normal cellular N-ras gene (53).

A and B, x 250; C, x 400. Adult tumors derived from neurons Neuroepithelioma The small, blue, round cell tumors which occur during childhood and the first decades of life, a group to which several of the above-mentioned tumors belong, has long been recognized as a diagnostically troublesome group of tumors. Although not frequently distinguished from neuroblastoma, neuroepithelioma is a tumor whose clinical presentation and biologic features qualify it as a most enigmatic yet important member of this group of tumors.

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