# Extreme Nonlinear Optics: An Introduction by Martin Wegener

By Martin Wegener

With the start of the laser in 1960, the sector of

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The mathematical procedure is as for the two-color excitation. Transverse as well as longitudinal damping are neglected. A straightforward calculation gives the upper-state occupation f2 = f2 (t → ∞) = f2 (2π/ω0 ) = (w(2π/ω0 ) + 1)/2 after the pulse f2 = 2 R 4 2 2 2 − ω02 sin2 π ω0 1+ ω02 − 2 2 sin2 π ω0 +φ . 29) 46 3 The Lorentz Oscillator Model and Beyond ... Again, the periodicity of f2 versus CEO phase φ is π . Note that the relative modulation depth does not depend on the Rabi frequency although f2 itself is obviously proportional to the intensity of light.

Consider far off-resonant excitation ( /ω0 1) of a two-level sys1). 37). What can you say about the third-order susceptibility? 3. , on the component u of the Bloch vector. In this section we focus our attention on the inversion w and its dependence on the carrier-envelope offset phase φ. The inversion versus time on the timescale of a cycle of light is not really an observable – at least by today’s standards. , w(t → ∞). This can be accomplished by sweeping out the electrons in the upper state in the static electric field of a photodetector and detecting the resulting photocurrent, or, alternatively, by an additional optical probe pulse at times well after the excitation pulse.

The quantity ˜ R is the envelope Rabi frequency and is given by ˜ . 22) Note that the envelope Rabi frequency no longer oscillates with the carrier frequency of light. The pulse depicted in Fig. 4(a) is called a 2π-pulse as it leads to one complete Rabi oscillation within the pulse. One also says that the (envelope) pulse area is 2π . Similarly, a ˜ -pulse has an envelope pulse area of ˜ = +∞ −∞ ˜ R (t) dt . 23) The modulation of the optical polarization with the Rabi frequency in the time domain clearly corresponds to sidebands in the Fourier domain.