Failed Stone: Problems and Solutions with Concrete and by Patrick Loughran (auth.)

By Patrick Loughran (auth.)

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Example text

Although similar in appearance, The white efflorescence film shown near an the removal process is different. Efflorescence exterior window provides the smoking gun is not limited to brick and concrete façades. to a problem of water migration through the Because efflorescence is related to mortar, wall. it can be a problem with stone façades, where walls are tied together with mortar joints. Efflorescence can commonly occur in brickwork adjoining concrete material. In this situation concrete is frequently wetted from rain right Spalled concrete at and snow melting on it.

Scaling is often caused by the Tie holes are the void in a concrete surface expansion and contraction of surface concrete left when a tie end is snapped off, broken due to the freeze/thaw cycling. This type of back, or removed. Ties that are broken back defect will typically appear near joints after a or snapped off frequently leave irregular holes, year of thermal cycling. The solution to this whereas threaded internal disconnecting ties problem is to provide additional air entrain- leave more uniform holes.

Close to the surface of the concrete rusts. Curling at a saw-cut joint in slab. 1 Saw-cut joint prior to curling of concrete 2 Saw-cut joint after curling of concrete Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels, Los Angeles, 2002. below Tie holes in cast-inplace concrete can be covered with a variety of techniques. g. with lead) 9 Filled and shaped with mortar 10 Filled with mortar right Colored concrete poses a challenge to repair as seen by tie hole fix at Our Lady of the Angels. The Forming of Concrete Surface defects in concrete can be linked to the method of casting the material.

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