Forgery and Counterforgery: The Use of Literary Deceit in by Bart D. Ehrman
By Bart D. Ehrman
"Arguably the main virtue of the early Christian literature," writes Bart Ehrman, "is the measure to which it was once forged." The Homilies and Recognitions of Clement; Paul's letters to and from Seneca; Gospels by means of Peter, Thomas, and Philip; Jesus' correspondence with Abgar, letters by means of Peter and Paul within the New Testament--all forgeries. to quote quite a few examples.
Forgery and Counterforgery is the 1st accomplished learn of early Christian pseudepigrapha ever produced in English. In it, Ehrman argues that historic critics--pagan, Jewish, and Christian--understood fake authorial claims to be a sort of literary deceit, and therefore forgeries. Ehrman considers the level of the phenomenon, the "intention" and motivations of old Greek, Roman, and Jewish forgers, and reactions to their paintings as soon as detected. He additionally assesses the factors historic critics utilized to reveal forgeries and the ideas forgers used to prevent detection. With the broader practices of the traditional global as backdrop, Ehrman then makes a speciality of early Christian polemics, as quite a few Christian authors cast files to be able to lend their rules a veneer of authority in literary battles waged with pagans, Jews, and, most significantly, with each other in internecine disputes over doctrine and perform. In a few circumstances a forger directed his paintings opposed to perspectives present in one other forgery, growing thereby a "counter-forgery." Ehrman's overview of polemical forgeries begins with these of the recent testomony (nearly 1/2 whose books make a fake authorial declare) up during the Pseudo-Ignatian epistles and the Apostolic Constitutions on the finish of the fourth century.
Shining gentle on an enormous yet neglected characteristic of the early Christian international, Forgery and Counterforgery explores the potential motivations of the deceivers who produced those writings, situating their perform inside historic Christian discourses on mendacity and deceit.
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Extra resources for Forgery and Counterforgery: The Use of Literary Deceit in Early Christian Polemics
After Jesus’s arrest, he stood before Caiaphas, the high priest. When Jesus affirmed his identity as “the Messiah, the Son of God” (Mt. 26:63–64), the high priest charged him with blasphemy. The high priest asked the assembled elders and the teachers of the law, “Look, now you have heard the blasphemy. ” (26:65–66). They declared Jesus worthy of death. E x a m p l e : Christ Before Caiaphas, painting by Giotto di Bondone, fourteenth century. Scrovegni Chapel, Padua, Italy. ” P ete r De n ies C h r ist Mt.
Jesus replied with the famous words, “Let the little children come to me, and do not hinder them, for the kingdom of heaven belongs to such as these” (Mt. 19:14). Jesus placed his hands on the children and blessed them (Mk. 10:16). E x a m p l e : Blessing the Children, painting by Lucas Cranach the Elder, sixteenth century. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York. Cranach placed Jesus, cuddling and kissing a baby, in a crowded group of women, children, and disciples. ” P a r ab l e of t h e G oo d S a m a r ita n Lk.
14:66–72; Lk. 22:54–65; Jn. 18:25–27. The disciple Peter sat outside the courtyard of the high priest while Caiaphas challenged Jesus and declared him blasphemous. Bystanders Stories About Jesus | asked Peter if he knew Jesus, and the disciple denied the Lord three times. “Immediately a rooster crowed. ’ And he went outside and wept bitterly” (Mt. 26:74–75). E x a m p l e : Christ Before Annas and Peter’s Denial, painting by Duccio di Buoninsegna, fourteenth century. Siena Cathedral, Siena, Italy.