Idealistische morphologue und phylogenetik by Naef A

By Naef A

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Scandens Marchena G. fuliginosa Santa Cruz G. 10 Phylogenetic tree of Geospiza species based upon nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer sequences. Collection locality is noted after the species name. Branch lengths and bootstrap values are written above and below the branches, respectively (from Freeland and Boag 1999). markers between G. fortis and G. scandens on the Galápagos island of Daphne Major: (i) there has been an increase in overall genetic heterozygosity in G. scandens, but not in G.

Finally, when they do backcross to the parental species, they normally produce genotypes of inferior viability that are eliminated by natural selection. Successful hybridization is indeed a rare phenomenon among animals’ (Mayr 1963, p133). In contrast to this prediction, there are numerous instances in which, for example, the rarity of viable gametes has not prevented important evolutionary effects from F1 and latergeneration hybrid formation (Arnold et al. 1999). One example from the plant literature involves the annual sunflower species Helianthus annuus and Helianthus petiolaris.

7). As stated above, there have been significant advances made—in particular through the acquisition of DNA sequence data—in the ability to define species of prokaryotes. Yet, the occurrence of widespread lateral gene transfer still represents a significant barrier for systematic treatments, regardless of whether the phylogenetic and ecological, phylophenetic, or some other species concept is applied. For example, Doolittle and his colleagues have emphasized repeatedly the significance that must be placed on accounting for lateral gene transfer not only in prokaryotic origins, but in eukaryotic origins as well (Doolittle 1999; Boucher et al.

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