Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry by Howard E. Taylor
By Howard E. Taylor
Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry offers chemists with a number of choices for fixing analytical difficulties. Taylor, a examine chemist with the U.S. Geological Survey in Boulder, CO, summarizes the operational features of the expertise, the kinds of instrumentation at the moment on hand, the relative merits of alternative forms of pattern advent, options for reaching and examining effects, and strength issues of info acquisition and interpretation for particular purposes. applicable as a supplementary textual content for graduate classes regarding analytical chemistry or hint point research, really in chemistry, environmental technology, geology, engineering, oceanography, archaeology, physics, and biology.
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Cold-Vapor Mercury Mercury is uniquely determined by the reduction of inorganic mercury compounds (Hg^ and Hg^^) to the elemental state (Hg^) using a reducing agent, followed by the transport of the elemental Hg vapor to the plasma in the Ar carrier stream. A unique physical property of elemental Hg is its high vapor pressure at room temperature. The chemical stability of elemental Hg in the vapor form provides for an operationally simple apparatus and vapor transport system. Stannous chloride (SnCy in hydrochloric acid is commonly used as the reducing agent for cold-vapor Hg generation, although NaBO^ has also been effectively used.
1 Gaseous Samples "^n iiAO u IUl"'IVIO ^ ^ Thre( innel perist altic pump Ar (ID . 2 57 Waste Plumbing arrangement for hydride generation sample introduction system. , in the continuous-flow mode), usually with a multichannel peristaltic pump, to a mixing vessel (or mixing coil) with the sample, where they are efficiently mixed for a controlled period of time. 3) where the molecular hydride compound is isolated from the liquid and non-hydrideforming matrix components of the sample. The Ar carrier stream then transports the hydride compound, in the vapor state, with the injection gas directly into the plasma.
The signal generated from the ions impinging on the Faraday cup detector is amplified by a low-noise direct current amplifier, capable of measuring ion beams down to about 10"^ ion/s, overlapping the effective working range of the electron multiplier detectors. 17 Faraday cup detector. 4 Detectors 51 The advantage of the Faraday cup detector is high stabiHty, which can be used to measure large ion beams without fear of damaging the detector. In addition, it can be effectively used for making isotope ratio measurements because of its advantageous feature of no mass bias, which results in very high accuracy.