Interfaces Between the Oral and the Written Interfaces by Alain Ricard, Flora Veit-Wild

By Alain Ricard, Flora Veit-Wild

Within the African context, there exists the ‘myth’ that orality capability culture. Written and oral verbal artwork are usually considered as dichotomies, one with the exception of the opposite. whereas orature is careworn with ‘tradition’, literature is ascribed to modernity. additionally, neighborhood languages are neglected and literature is equated with writing in overseas languages. The contributions during this quantity take factor with such preconceptions and discover the a number of ways that literary and oral varieties interrelate and subvert one another, giving start to new different types of creative expression. They emphasize the neighborhood company of the African poet and author, which resists the worldwide commodification of literature throughout the overseas bestseller lists of the cultural undefined. the 1st part lines the stream from oral to written texts, which in lots of circumstances coincides with a change from African to ecu languages. yet because the essays within the part on “New Literary Languages” clarify, in different situations a real philological paintings is comprehensive within the African language to create a brand new written and literary medium. during the blending of languages within the towns, resembling the Sheng spoken in Kenya or the bilinguality of a author corresponding to Cheik Aliou Ndao (Senegal), new idioms for literary expressions evolve. using new media, expertise or tune stimulate the emergence of latest genres, akin to Taarab in East Africa, radio poetry in Yoruba and Hausa, or Rap within the Senegal, as is proven within the part on “Forms of recent Orality.” it's a nice fulfillment of this moment quantity of types and Subversions in African Literatures that it assembles contributions via students from the anglophone and the francophone global and that it covers literary construction in a large spectrum of languages: English, French, Hausa, Sheng, Sotho, Spanish, Swahili, Wolof and Yoruba. the various authors and cultural practitioners handled intimately are: Mobolaij Adenubi, Birago Diop, Boubacar Boris Diop, David Maillu, Thomas Mofolo, Cheik Aliou Ndao, Donato Ndongo–Bidyogo, Hubert Ogunde, Shaaban Robert, Wole Soyinka, Ibrahim YaroYahaya, and Sénouvo Agbota Zinsou. members Sa’idu Babura Ahmad Graham Furniss Xavier Garnier Sélom Komlan Gbanou Susanne Gehrmann Thomas Geider Ute Gierczýnski–Bocandé acknowledged Khamis Kahiudi Claver Mabana Sophie Moulard–Kouka Rita Nnodim Anja Oed Femi Osofisan Alain Ricard János Riesz Antonio Uribe flowers Veit–Wild Sénouvo Agbota Zinsou Contents Acknowledgements advent Alain RICARD and plants VEIT-WILD: neighborhood Literatures as opposed to worldwide tradition From the Oral to the Written Sélom Komlan GBANOU, János RIESZ & Sénouvo Agbota ZINSOU: Les métamorphoses du conte Sénouvo Agbota ZINSOU : Du conte à los angeles scène János RIESZ : Du conte au roman politique, de l’oralité aux médias Yévi et l’éléphant chanteur de Sénouvo Agbota Zinsou Sélom Komlan GBANOU : De los angeles planche à los angeles bande: Les voies modernes de l’oralité africaine: De los angeles scène à l. a. cassette Kahiudi Claver MABANA : los angeles réécriture francophone du mythe de Chaka Éloge, démystification et interrogation Anja OED : Beaking the Buffalo Woman’s Silence: The Rewriting of Ifa Divination Literature in Mobolaji Adenubi’s “The value of Being Prudent” New Literary Languages Alain RICARD: “Un ouvrage d’imagination absolument original...”: Moeti oa Bochabela de Thomas Mofolo: premiere roman africain Xavier GARNIER : Shaaban Robert ou l’optimisme de l’écriture Thomas GEIDER : Code-Switching among Swahili and English in East African renowned Literature Ute GIERCZÝNSKI-BOCANDÉ: L’OEuvre de Cheik Aliou Ndao en français et en wolof: percentages et problèmes d’un écrivain bilingue au Sénégal Antonio URIBE : los angeles littérature de Guinée Équatoriale: Une littérature tricontinentale? examine des racines espagnoles, latinoaméricaines et africaines Susanne GEHRMANN : Written Orature in Senegal: From the Traditionalistic stories of Birago Diop to the Subversive Novels of Boubacar Boris Diop Femi OSOFISAN: Yo

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Extra info for Interfaces Between the Oral and the Written Interfaces entre l’ecrit et l’oral: Versions and Subversions in African Literatures 2 (Matatu 31-32)

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L’effet de massification progressive, technique proprement dramatique (ainsi la prolifération des rhinocéros dans la pièce de Ionesco) présent dans les pièces dont je viens de parler, est également utilisé ici: c’est d’abord Agbo– Kpanzo, le personnage central qui entend le chant de la tortue à la chasse. Puis son beau père et rival Podogan, puis, tout à la fin, le roi et toute la population. Le spectacle se termine en chant et en danse, par le ballet des HommesTortues, ce qui est le symbole du triomphe de la vérité artistique sur le mensonge politique et sur le cri de ceux qui réclament la viande.

Les deux l’auront entendu sans l’écouter. Ce n’est que progressivement, à mesure que le drame évolue, qu’Agbo–Kpanzo apprendra à l’écouter. Entre les deux personnages, se trouve Nyomadu, femme d’Agbo–Kpanzo et fille de Podogan. Elle représente pour l’un et pour l’autre, l’épreuve, épreuve d’écoute et de compréhension nécessaire dans les relations d’amour, et de raison pour Agbo–Kpanzo, d’une part; épreuve de vérité du sentiment familial et de vérité tout court pour Podogan, d’autre part. Les deux échoueront dans un premier temps.

Comment la Tortue s’y prend-elle pour ouvrir les yeux aux uns et aux autres? Elle chante: Enya mu so na djina meo 12 Amee djina nya Mais, à y regarder de près, le mot enya que j’ai traduit par “malheur,” signifie littéralement: ‘parole’. Ce mot doit prendre ici le sens de dispute, querelle. A dji nya, c’est chercher dispute et nul ne sait dans une dispute qui peut gagner, ni jusqu’où cela peut aller. Enya mu so na djina ameo (littéralement: ‘la dispute ne quitte pas le lieu elle où se trouve pour aller chercher l’homme’), cela signifie bien que la dispute, ou les problèmes ne nous tombent pas dessus comme des fatalités, mais que ce sont nos propres passions qui nous y conduisent.

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