Introduction to Genetic Analysis & Solutions MegaManual by Anthony J.F. Griffiths

By Anthony J.F. Griffiths

A special scholar source combining a options handbook with Paul Young's interactive Exploring Genetics tutorials.

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To do so, we must look at the behavior of the chromosomes on which the alleles are found. In diploid organisms, there are two copies of each chromosome, each containing one of the two alleles. How is Mendel’s first law, the equal segregation of alleles at gamete formation, accomplished at the cell level? In a diploid organism such as peas, all the cells of the organism contain two chromosome sets. Gametes, however, are haploid, containing one chromosome set. Gametes are produced by specialized cell divisions in the diploid cells in the germinal tissue (ovaries and anthers).

He noted that the ratio of 705 : 224 is almost exactly a 3 : 1 ratio. Mendel repeated the crossing procedures for the six other pairs of pea character differences. He found the same 3 : 1 ratio in the F2 generation for each pair (Table 2-1). By this time, he was undoubtedly beginning to attribute great significance to the 3 : 1 ratio and to think up an explanation for it. In all cases, one parental phenotype disappeared in the F1 and reappeared in one-fourth of the F2. Mendel went on to thoroughly test the class of F individuals showing the dominant phenotype.

This progeny generation is called the first filial generation (F1). ) Mendel made reciprocal crosses. In most plants, any cross can be made in two ways, depending on which Figure 2-6 Mendel’s cross of white-flowered & ϫ purpleflowered ( showed that all progeny of a reciprocal cross were also purple-flowered. phenotype is used as male (() or female (&). For example, the following two crosses phenotype A ( ϫ phenotype B & phenotype B ( ϫ phenotype A & Figure 2-5 Mendel’s cross of purple-flowered & ϫ whiteflowered ( yielded all purple-flowered progeny.

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