isotope ratio mass spectrometry by I. T. Platzner

By I. T. Platzner

Lead isotope dimension of NIST610 glass through laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

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Example text

Thus, to the observer in the rotating frame it appears that there is no magnetic field acting on this magnetization, because if there were, a torque would cause precession according to Eq. 45. In general, if the actual (laboratory frame) precession frequency is o) 7^ co^, M appears to precess in the rotating frame 2it CO ~ a)rf, and thus there appears to be acting on it a magnetic field along the z' axis of Bappa„„. The component of Bj rotating in the same direction as the nuclei precess can be taken to lie along the x' axis, while the counterrotating component (which rotates at —2a)^m the rotating frame) can safely be ignored.

44) radians as illustrated in Fig. 4. We discuss experimental parameters in detail in Chapter 3, but a typical value of B| is 10 gauss (or 1 miUitesla), which causes M for ^H to precess at a rate of about 40 kilohertz (kHz). In about 6 /is (a typical pulse width) M thus moves through an angle of 90° (7r/2 radians). N o w what happens to M? Because it is no longer collinear with BQ, it experiences a torque from BQ, just as it did from Bi, and it precesses about a 90° M M 180° >f ^. 4 Rotation of magnetization M about rf field Bj.

Hence, T2 may in principle be determined from a plot of peak echo amplitude as a function of r. As in the measurement of Tj by the inversion-recovery method, it would be necessary to carry out a separate pulse sequence for each value of T and to wait between pulse sequences an adequate time (at least five times Ti) for restoration of equilibrium. In Chapter 9 we discuss other pulse sequences that eliminate the waiting time and circumvent several other shortcomings of this simple spin-echo method.

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