MicroRNAs: From Basic Science to Disease Biology by Krishnarao Appasani, Sidney Altman, Victor R. Ambros

By Krishnarao Appasani, Sidney Altman, Victor R. Ambros

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are RNA molecules, conserved by way of evolution, that keep watch over gene expressions and their fresh discovery is revolutionising either uncomplicated biomedical examine and drug discovery. Expression degrees of MiRNAs were chanced on to change among tissues and with developmental phases and therefore evaluate of the worldwide expression of miRNAs in all likelihood offers possibilities to spot regulatory issues for lots of diversified organic strategies. This wide-ranging reference paintings, written by way of top specialists from either academia and undefined, might be a useful source for all these wishing to take advantage of miRNA strategies of their personal learn, from graduate scholars, post-docs and researchers in academia to these operating in R&D in biotechnology and pharmaceutical businesses who have to comprehend this rising expertise. From the invention of miRNAs and their capabilities to their detection and function in sickness biology, this quantity uniquely integrates the fundamental technology with program in the direction of drug validation, diagnostic and healing improvement. Forewords by way of: Sidney Altman, Yale college, Winner of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1989 and Victor R. Ambros, Dartmouth scientific institution, Co-discoverer of MicroRNAs

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Reproduced from Jacob and Monod (1961). Model II depicts a microRNA-like mechanism. Both models were proposed for the lac repressor and turned out to be false, as the lac repressor is a protein transcription factor. However, model I and II may underlie short RNA mediated gene regulation at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional level respectively. general model a number of factors have been directly implicated in microRNA function in C. elegans. , 2004). , 2001; Knight and Bass, 2001). Interestingly, two Argonaute family members, Alg-1 and Alg-2 are also required for the generation of the mature microRNA from pre-miRNA, suggesting that at least in C.

The microRNAs world did not take off until the discovery of RNAi, and let-7, a second microRNA discovered by Ruvkun and his colleagues in 2000. The highly conserved nature of let-7 attracted a great deal of attention to microRNAs research and since then many groups have identified microRNAs in various organisms, from protozoans to humans. The paradigm from the heterochromic lin-4/lin-14 genes remains the model; miRNAs have now been shown to control mRNA abundance in plants, and are thought to regulate many more steps beyond translation.

2000). Conservation of the sequence and temporal expression of let-7 heterochronic regulatory RNA. Nature, 408, 86–89. The microRNAs of C. elegans Pillai, R. , Bhattacharyya, S. , Artus, C. G. et al. (2005). Inhibition of translational initiation by let-7 microRNA in human cells. Science, 309, 1573–1576. Rajewsky, N. and Socci, N. D. (2004). Computational identification of microRNA targets. Developmental Biology, 267, 529–535. Reinhart, B. , Slack, F. , Basson, M. et al. (2000). The 21-nucleotide let-7 RNA regulates developmental timing in Caenorhabditis elegans.

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