Migration History in World History (Studies in Global Social by Jan Lucassen, Leo Lucassen, Patrick Manning (editors)

By Jan Lucassen, Leo Lucassen, Patrick Manning (editors)

Migration performs a very important function within the improvement of human societies. This ebook bargains an summary of the state-of-the-art in disciplines that research the deep previous and exhibits how historians and social scientists can make the most of their insights.

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As the chapters in this volume demonstrate, these disciplines can add new data, new analytical questions, and new interpretations to our understanding of migration. 73 The authors of the chapters in this book introduce their disciplines—genetics, chemistry, historical linguistics, archaeology, and anthropology—and show how they identify central issues linked to migration, gather and analyze data, and interpret migratory patterns. Each discipline has its defined subject matter; the basic questions it seeks to answer; its analytical framework, assumptions, and theory; the data on which it relies; its analytical procedures; and the interpretations that result from the analysis.

From this condensed tree and the corresponding maps, a complex picture emerges, illustrating the out-of-Africa expansion of modern humans. Although there are a number of different possible scenarios, the most likely model is the one where the DE and C+F independently arose in Africa, shortly after each other and contributed to two independent migrations out-of-Africa. The first one resulted in a nowadays very scattered distribution of haplogroup D Y-chromosomes in various parts of Asia; the second one involved C+F Y-chromosomes, apparently spreading very rapidly (and perhaps locally wiping out D haplogroup carriers) throughout Asia and beyond.

5 4 5 Jobling and Tyler-Smith 2000. De Knijff 2000. 42 peter de knijff A B AGT A→C AGT AGT CGT G→C T→C ACT CGT CGC This tree connects four different human Y chromosomes characterized by different SNP types. Assuming a minimum number of single SNP mutation steps, the tree in (A) is the most optimal solution. However, from this tree it is impossible to infer which of the four distinct Y chromosomes the oldest or ancestral one is. Each of the four variants could be the “founding father”. Only when we type the same SNPs in a closely related evolutionary “sister” of modern humans (here a Chimpanzee) can we reconstruct the ancestral sequence.

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