Minerals in Animal and Human Nutrition, 2nd Edition by L. R. McDowell

By L. R. McDowell

This entire textbook and reference guide offers concise, up to date details on mineral meals for cattle and bird, in addition to comparative features with laboratory animals and people. Chapters are equipped by way of tested and commonest minerals, and current info on every one mineral's background, homes, distribution, and typical resources, in addition to their requisites, metabolism, capabilities, deficiencies, supplementation equipment, and toxicity for varied animals. these minerals for which clearly happening deficiencies or excesses are recognized to be of financial value are emphasised. a different function of this ebook is the outline of the sensible implications of mineral deficiencies and excesses, and of the stipulations that would outcome. a good number of vintage pictures illustrate mineral deficiencies and toxicities in farm cattle, laboratory animals and people. in addition, it locations robust emphasis on mineral supplementation in each one bankruptcy, and devotes a whole bankruptcy to this topic.

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World Health Organization, Geneva. Williams, S. , Lawrence, L. , McDowell, L. , Wilkinson, N. , Ferguson, P. , and Warnick, A. , (1991). J. Anim. Sci. 69, 1232. Chapter 2 Calcium and Phosphorus I. INTRODUCTION Calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) are considered together because they constitute the major part of the mineral content of bone. They are very closely related; a deficiency or an excess of one wi11 interfere with the proper utilization of the other. The Ca: P ratio in the bone is slightly greater than 2: 1 and is approximately constant.

INTESTINAL EFFECTS Vitamin 0 stimulates active transport of Ca and P across intestinal epithelium. This stimulation does not involve PTH directly but involves the active form of vitamin D. PTH indirectly stimulates intestinal Ca absorption by stimulating production of 1,25-(OHhD under conditions of hypocalcemia. In humans, as the body becomes vitamin 0 insufficient, the efficiency of intestinal Ca absorption decreases from 30 to 50% to no more than 15%. The mechanism whereby vitamin 0 stimulates Ca and P absorption is still not completely understood.

1985; Miller, 1985; Rasmussen, 1986; Arnaud and Sanchez, 1996; Bronner, 1997; McDowell, 1997; Underwood and Suttle, 1999). 1. CALCIUM The 1% of the body's Ca located outside of the bone is found in extracellular fluid, soft tissue, and as a component of various membrane structures (Bronner, 1997). Nonskeletal Ca occurs as the free ion bound to serum proteins and complexed to organic and inorganic acids. Calcium is essential for normal blood clotting; the Ca ion must be present for prothrombin to form thrombin, which reacts with fibrinogen to form the blood clot, fibrin (McDowell, 2000).

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