Mitochondrial DNA Mutations in Aging, Disease and Cancer by Dongchon Kang, Koichiro Takeshige (auth.), Keshav K. Singh

By Dongchon Kang, Koichiro Takeshige (auth.), Keshav K. Singh Ph.D. (eds.)

Many human genetic ailments linked to blood, mind, colon, ear, eye, center, kidney, liver, muscle, and pancreas are because of mutations in mitochondrial DNA. Mutations in DNA can lead to defects of the electron delivery complexes, intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and substrate shipping. The medical manifestation of those ailments frequently consists of muscle and the frightened process. Mitochondrial DNA mutations have now been linked to getting older in addition to age-related degenerative ailments akin to Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and Huntington's illnesses. adjustments in constitution, functionality, and a few mitochondria play a major function in carcinogenesis. in addition, the position of mitochondria within the execution of programmed telephone dying or apoptosis has been famous recently.

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The most striking feature of this description is that it is often incorreet. 37 (Fig. 1). In many instances the ends of the tubes are continuous with the 20 Mitochondrial DNA Mutations in Aging, Disease and Cancer Fig. 1. Scanning electron micrographs of rat hepatocyte showing tubular cristae in mitochondria. Rough endoplasmic reticulum is also visible in the top micrograph. (M) mitochondria; (C) cristae; (T) tubular cristae; (L) lumen of the cristae. Reprinted with permission from Lea PJ et al, Am J Anat 1989; 184:245-257, © 1989 Alan R.

RNase MRP RNA is primarily employed in maturation of ribosomal RNA in the nucleolus. 112- 1l4 A controversy surrounding the mitochondriallocalization of this RNA has been resolved by immune electron microscopy confirming its localization in mitochondria. 1l5 RNase P is required for endonucleolytic processing of the 5' leader of tRNA. While the RNA subunit of this enzyme is encoded by mitochondria in yeast, the RNA subunit of the mitochondrial enzyme is encoded by a nuclear gene in mammals. 1l6 Two routes have been proposed for transport of RNA into mitochondria.

J Cell Biol 1994; 124:1-6. 72. Hockenbery DM, Oltvai ZN, Yin X-M et al. Bcl-2 functions in an antioxidant pathway to prevent apoptosis. Cell 1993; 75:241-251. 73. Liu X, Kim N, Yang J et al. Induction of apoptotic program in cell-free extracts: requirement for dATP and cytochrome c. Cell 1996; 86:147-157. 74. Susin SA, Zamzami N, Castedo M et al. Bcl-2 inhibits the mitochondrial release of an apoptogenic protease. J Exp Med 1996; 184:1331-1341. 75. Asoh S, Mori T, Hayashi J et al. Expression of the apoptosis-mediator Fas is enhanced by dysfunctional mitochondria.

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