Models of Seizures and Epilepsy by Asla Pitkänen, Philip A. Schwartzkroin, Solomon L. Moshé MD

By Asla Pitkänen, Philip A. Schwartzkroin, Solomon L. Moshé MD

An knowing of mechanisms underlying seizure problems relies severely at the insights supplied through version platforms. specifically with the improvement of mobile, molecular, and genetic investigative instruments, there was an explosion of uncomplicated epilepsy examine. versions of Seizures and Epilepsy brings jointly, for the 1st time in 30 years, an summary of the main widely-used versions of seizures and epilepsy. Chapters conceal a extensive diversity of experimental methods (from in vitro to entire animal preparations), various epileptiform phenomenology (including burst discharges and seizures), and recommendations for version characterization and validation, akin to electrographic, morphologic, pharmacologic, and behavioral good points. specialists within the box supply not just technical stories of those versions but additionally conceptual evaluations - commenting at the strengths and boundaries of those types, their courting to medical phenomenology, and their worth in constructing a greater realizing and coverings. types of Seizures and Epilepsy is a worthy, sensible reference for investigators who're trying to find the main acceptable laboratory types for addressing key questions within the box. It additionally offers a major historical past for physicians, fellows, and scholars, supplying perception into the possibility of advances in epilepsy study. · the 1st accomplished description of animal types of epilepsy because the early 1970's· accomplished research of "What the types version" to lead the choice of every version, and what particular questions it's going to solution· dependent examples of using novel applied sciences that may be utilized in experimental epilepsy study· global professional critiques at the medical relevance of every version

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Important from the point of view of epilepsy research, it was subsequently demonstrated that just such a “switch” to GABA synthesis could occur during prolonged seizures. , 1996). Subsequent to this demonstration, investigators have shown that the number of GAD-positive neurons in particular brain nuclei varies significantly (and reversibly) under other physiologic circumstances, such as diurnal and estrus cycles. Obviously control of inhibitory elements in critical brain circuits can have a profound effect on excitability and seizure development and spread.

And Zona, C. 1989. Calcium currents in cultured rat cortical neurons. Brain Res 492: 219–229. , and Biales, B. 1983. Action potential mechanism of mammalian cortical neurons in cell culture. Brain Res 289: 99– 107. O. 1990. Excitatory amino acid receptors in epilepsy. Trends Pharmacol Sci 11: 334–338. D. 1978. Neurotransmitters decrease the calcium component of sensory neurone action potentials. Nature 276: 837–839. , Surmeier, J. et al. 1995. Mechanisms of neuronal plasticity as analyzed at the single cell level.

Obviously control of inhibitory elements in critical brain circuits can have a profound effect on excitability and seizure development and spread. The application of single-cell molecular profiling has been extended well beyond the early studies in cell culture. , 2004). , 1998). Excitotoxicity The concept of excitotoxicity is so common at present that it is perhaps surprising to recognize that this hypothesis was only developed in the 1970s and 1980s. , 1974; Rothman and Olney, 1986), much of the subsequent progress in understanding underlying mechanisms proceeded in studies of CNS cell cultures.

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