Modern Computational Intelligence Methods for the by Prof. Dr. Marek R. Ogiela, Prof. Dr. Ryszard Tadeusiewicz
By Prof. Dr. Marek R. Ogiela, Prof. Dr. Ryszard Tadeusiewicz (auth.)
A unique description of updated tools used for laptop processing and interpretation of clinical photos is given. The scope of the publication contain photos acquisition, storing with compression, processing, research, attractiveness and in addition its automated knowing In creation normal evaluation of the pc imaginative and prescient equipment designed for clinical photos is gifted. subsequent resources of clinical pictures are offered with their normal features. either conventional (like X-ray) and extremely smooth (like puppy) assets of clinical pictures are awarded. the most emphasis is put on such homes of scientific photographs given by means of specific clinical imaging equipment that are very important shape the viewpoint of its computing device processing, research and popularity. The consecutive components of the booklet describes compression and processing equipment, together with many tools built by means of authors specifically for clinical photos. After elements describing research and popularity of clinical photos come most crucial half, within which the recent approach to automated figuring out of scientific photographs is given. This new approach to snapshot interpretation, defined in earlier works of a similar authors with purposes for easy second photographs now's generalized for 3D pictures and for complicated clinical pictures with many items saw and with complex kin among those gadgets.
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As we know, the USG apparatus measures the differences in the return time of the echo bouncing from different structures and presents them on the image under the assumption that the distance traveled by the impulse over a unit of time is the same in every place, which is obviously untrue. What is more, the surfaces between environments of various ultrasound propagation velocities not only reflect waves (which is necessary to obtain the image), but also refract them. As a result, the probing impulses, instead of traveling down straight lines along the direction of the beam produced, which is assumed when generating the USG image, follow an indeterminate, winding and complicated route, which can only be roughly approximated as a straight line.
33). Please note that the relationship between the Z0 Larmor frequency and the type of nucleus means that an impulse of the right frequency will excite only one type of nuclei. Fig. 33. Situation of the magnetization vector of the tissue examined: (a) before exciting, (b) at the moment of excitation, (c) during the relaxation process after the excitation. An important phenomenon occurs at the level of single atomic nuclei. All the m magnetic moments of individual nuclei which make up the M magnetization spin after the excitation, in the transverse plane, at the same frequency (Larmor frequency) and in consistent phases.
42. The historical (currently abandoned) method of imaging radionuclide distribution in the human body In the above examination method, after administering the radionuclide to the patient, a radiation detector was moved above his/her body and places where the detector measured higher radiation were marked on paper. The resultant paper map showed where there was a lot of the radionuclide, and where little. Nowadays, the same purpose is achieved easier, faster and more effectively with devices called gamma cameras (Fig.