Modern physics : an introductory text by Jeremy I. Pfeffer

By Jeremy I. Pfeffer

This ebook originated from the necessity for an appropriate scholar textual content for the path ''An creation to trendy Physics'' given on the Hebrew college of Jerusalem. This path is open to all scholars who've accomplished the normal first-year physics classes in mechanics, optics, electrical energy and magnetism. Its basic objective is to supply graduates who're - no matter what their box of specialisation - ''modern-physics-literate''. The presentation of the direction fabric emphasises the actual points of the phenomena.

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The Princide of SDecial Relativity The laws of physics have the same form in all inertial reference frames. The Newtonian principle of relativity asserts that the laws of mechanics shall have the same form in all inertial reference frames. Einstein widened the scope of this principle to include all the laws of physics. He asserted that all the laws of physics, without exception, must be covariant. This extension of the Newtonian principle of relativity recognises the fact that no experiment, either mechanical or electromagnetic, has ever succeeded in determining whether an inertial reference frame is in absolute motion or at absolute rest, Experimentally, all inertial frames are indistinguishable.

In order to establish (or refute) the underlying equivalence of the sets of observations and measurements made from different reference frames and of the physical laws derived from them, a systematic independent procedure is required. In the language of the mathematicians, such a procedure is called a transformation. If the application of the transformation to the observations and measurements made from one reference frame systematically converts them all into the corresponding observations and measurements made from a different reference frame, then the two sets of observations and measurements are essentially equivalent.

Jack and Jill are the respective commanders of the ships and they each report the incident in their respective logs. Jack’s log: As the enemy ship drew alongside, two of my cannons fired at point-blank range. I know from the dimensions of my vessel that the cannons are equidistant from the command bridge, one forward and one aft. Since I saw the flashes from the cannons’ muzzles at the same moment, I conclude that the cannons fired simultaneously. As we drew alongside the enemy ship, its cannons fired at point-blank range.

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