# Multi-Carrier Digital Comm OFDM by Ahmad R. S. Bahai, Burton R. Saltzberg, Mustafa Ergen

By Ahmad R. S. Bahai, Burton R. Saltzberg, Mustafa Ergen

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This behavior is called shadowing. Measurements indicate that the path loss is random and distributed log-normally. 1 for indoor path loss is called log normal shadowing and follows the formula, where is the reference distance and is a zero mean Gaussian random variable with a standard deviation and are determined Chapter 2. 2: Received signal versus distance © [1] from measured data. 2. The figure is useful to understand the difference between path loss, shadowing and flat fading, which is described in the following section.

Some simplification compared with full multiplication may be possible at the transmitter, by taking advantage of small constellation sizes. The number of operations per block of duration T is where K is a small quantity. To compare this with a single carrier system, the number of operations per line symbol interval T/N is which is substantially below the requirement of an equalizer in a typical single carrier implementation for wireline applications. In most wireline systems it is desirable to transmit the transformed symbols without any further modulation stages.

One of the benefits of an OFDM system with an FFT structure is the fact that it lends itself to a repetitive structure very well. This structure is preferred compared to the required filtering complexity in other wideband systems. 12. 13. In order to detect (receive) the marked point at the output, we can restrict the Chapter 2. 13: Partial FFT (DIT) FFT calculation to the marked lines. Therefore, a significant amount of processing will be saved. Two main differences between decimation in time (DIT) and decimation in frequency (DIF) are noted [11].