Multilayered migration governance : the promise of by Rahel Kunz, Sandra Lavenex, Marion Panizzon
By Rahel Kunz, Sandra Lavenex, Marion Panizzon
Examines using migration partnerships as a brand new software within the political administration of migration flows.
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Extra info for Multilayered migration governance : the promise of partnership
This generally means that unilateralism is in the interests of the powerful, receiving states, while multilateralism is in the interests of the weaker, sending states. This representation of the international politics of migration plays out at both the global and the regional level and serves as an obstacle to formalized cooperation. At the global level, voting patterns at the UN on, for example, the GFMD have polarized along north–south lines in accordance with whether states have been predominantly sending or receiving states.
This means that states do not require all-inclusive, binding multilateral cooperation in order to maximize the benefits and minimize the costs of mobility, but can instead often revert to more exclusive bilateral, regional, and inter-regional ‘clubs’. Furthermore, the international politics of most areas of migration is characterized by a fundamental power asymmetry, generally between migrant sending and receiving states. In the absence of a binding, institutional framework, receiving states have discretion to open or close their borders and are thus implicit ‘rule-makers’, while sending states have to generally accept the decisions of receiving states and are thus implicit ‘rule-takers’.
The bilateral Migration Partnerships explored in this volume (see Kunz, Panizzon, and Lavenex and Stucky in this volume) are but one aspect of the set of governance mechanisms through which northern states are attempting to develop trans-regional authority over migration, and they need to be seen in this larger context. While individual European states are trying to develop partnerships and the EU as a whole is developing a ‘Global Approach to Migration’, this chapter argues that these trends are part of a wider pattern of ‘trans-regional governance’ as a means by which northern states increasingly attempt to control and manage irregular migration.