Muslim Moroccan Migrants in Europe: Transnational Migration by M. Ennaji
By M. Ennaji
In response to the author's fieldwork and readings of media, executive reviews, and ancient and modern documents, this e-book explores how Muslim migrants in Europe give a contribution to a altering ecu panorama, concentrating on Muslim Moroccan migrants.
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Additional info for Muslim Moroccan Migrants in Europe: Transnational Migration in Its Multiplicity
This study asserted that the prevalence and importance of networks were key factors in migration. At the time of their migratory move, more than half of the males and three quarters of the female migrants mentioned having relatives or friends in the country of destination, which contributed to the development of a migration culture in the community. That is to say, migration has become deeply ingrained into the repertoire of this group’s behavior, and the values associated with migration have become part of their values.
As a result of the process of family reunification that began in the 1990s, women make up 40 percent of that population. A large number of Moroccan migrants have entered Italy illegally. After 2003, those prevented from entering the EU illegally through Spain—which has reinforced its Moroccan Migration History: Origins and Causes ● 25 enclave’s fences—crossed the Mediterranean in small boats to Italy via Algeria and Libya with the help of traffickers. 15 In 2010, the number of North African migrants arriving by sea was slight because of bilateral agreements with Libya and Tunisia that cracked down on trafficking in the region.
In the 1970s and 1980s, most migrants traveled to France, the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, and elsewhere in Europe without a visa (because there was no visa for Moroccans at that time) and resided in Europe as undocumented migrants before being subsequently regularized. The visa was not imposed by most European countries until 1990. 4 North African Jews have also experienced international migration. Their relatives and connections abroad helped them to migrate and to reside in France (Paris, Marseilles), the United Kingdom (Manchester), and North America (Montreal, New York).