Optochemical nanosensors by Andrea Cusano; et al

By Andrea Cusano; et al

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This is defined as the distance from the surface over which the electric field of the standing wave disturbance decays e−1 of its initial value at the interface. 9), the total reflection can be frustrated, and appears the phenomenon of optical tunneling whereby a wave is partially transmitted through it would be forbidden by geometrical optics [10]. 9, when a low-wide layer (of thickness comparable to or less than the optical wavelength) is sandwiched between media of higher index of refraction, because of the finite thickness of the air gap, a small amount of light tunnels through the air gap and transmits into the third medium by means of the resonant tunneling phenomena.

This is based on the fact that the electron plasma contributes to the negative dielectric constant of metals when the optical frequency is lower than the plasma frequency. 9 Optical tunneling of a wave through a very thin layer media, the thickness of which is approximately equal to (kβ)−1. The tunneled wave amplitude, Eot, is observed considerably attenuated. 16 Optochemical Nanosensors Surface plasmon waves can also be excited when the interface between two transparent media is coated with a thin layer, typically dozens of nanometers of a metal, enabling the light to penetrate into the metal layer.

13 Fundamentals of Photonics If the rotation is clockwise, the light is right elliptically polarized; on the contrary, if the electric field rotates counterclockwise, the wave is left elliptically polarized. The stay of polarization of the wave is determined by the orientation and shape of the ellipse. It must also be noted that the polarization ellipse could be degenerated in two particular cases: a circle and a straight line. The light will be circularly polarized when both amplitude fields, ex and ey, are equal and to be in phase-quadrature φ = φy − φx = (2m + 1)π/2.

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