Particle Physics - Experimental Methods and Colliders

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Nucl. Sci. 4, 315 (1954). A. V. Spencer, Phys. Rev. 103, 1597 (1956). A Lorentz transformation is needed to convert these center-of-mass data to knock-on energy spectra. 20. M. F. Peierls, Phys. Rev. B3, 3681 (1971). 21. F. W. Massey, The Theory of Atomic Collisions, Oxford Press, London, 1965. 22. D. Landau, J. Exp. Phys. (USSR) 8, 201 (1944). 23. V. Vavilov, Sov. Phys. JETP 5, 749 (1957). 24. H. Bichsel, Rev. Mod. Phys. 60, 663 (1988). 25. H. Bichsel, “A method to improve tracking and particle identification in TPCs and silicon detectors,” Nucl.

1), and b(E) is the sum of e+ e− pair production, bremsstrahlung, and photonuclear contributions. 37) x0 ≈ (1/b) ln(1 + E0 /Eµc ) , where Eµc = a/b. 20 shows contributions to b(E) for iron. 002 GeV g−1 cm2 , b(E)E dominates the energy loss above several hundred GeV, where b(E) is nearly constant. The rates of energy loss for muons in hydrogen, uranium, and iron are shown in Fig. 21 [1]. 20: Contributions to the fractional energy loss by muons in iron due to e+ e− pair production, bremsstrahlung, and photonuclear interactions, as obtained from Groom et al.

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