Philosophy in the Twentieth Century V655 by A.J. Ayer
By A.J. Ayer
"One of the main influential philosophers of this century, founding father of the college of logical positivism, offers his personal view of the foremost advancements in philosophy during the last eighty years."
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Additional info for Philosophy in the Twentieth Century V655
155. See also ‘Logical Atomism* in Logic and Knowledge , p. 326. 34 BERTRAND RUSSELL lars, whether sense-data or sensibilia, were said to belong to the same perspective if and only if they occurred simultaneously in the same private space. The theory which Russell developed with these concepts owes something to Leibniz's monadology. He treated each perspective as a point in what he called ‘perspective space’ , which, being a three-dimensional arrangement of three-dimensional perspectives, was itself a space of six dimensions.
25 THE REVOLT I ROM HEGEL ‘The present king of France’ function as names; and it is this further assumption that Russell chooses to sacrifice. His theory of descriptions is designed to show that expressions which take the form of definite or indefinite descriptions are not used as names, so that it is not necessary for them to denote anything in order for them to make their contributions to the meaning o f the sentences into which they enter. Russell characterized these expressions as ‘incomplete symbols’ , by which he meant both that their contribution to meaning did not consist in denotation, and that they were susceptible of analysis.
In 1898 he was elected to a prize-fellowship at Trinity which he held until 1904. In 1903 he published his first book, Principia Ethica, which had a very profound influence on such persons as Lytton Strachey, Clive Bell, Leonard W oolf and other members o f the ‘Bloomsbury’ coterie. He had private means which ’ P 55 1 p. 116. 40 G. E. MOORE enabled him to continue working at philosophy in London and in Edinburgh, without holding any official position, until 1911, when he was appointed a University lecturer at Cambridge.