Physics of bio-molecules and cells. Physique des by R. F. Bruinsma (auth.), F. Flyvbjerg, F. Jülicher, P. Ormos,
By R. F. Bruinsma (auth.), F. Flyvbjerg, F. Jülicher, P. Ormos, F. David (eds.)
Aimed toward these operating to go into this quickly constructing box, this quantity on organic physics is written in a pe- dagogical variety via top scientists giving factors that take their start line the place any physicist can fol- low and finish on the frontier of analysis in organic phy- sics. those lectures describe the cutting-edge physics of biomolecules and cells. In organic structures starting from unmarried biomolecules to complete cells and bigger organic platforms, it makes a speciality of points that require options and techniques from physics for his or her research and realizing, comparable to the mechanics of motor proteins; how the genetic code is bodily learn and controlled; the equipment of protein--DNA interactions; strength spectroscopy of biomolecules'velopes, cytoskeletons, and cytoplasms; polymerization forces; literia propulsion; mobilephone motility; lab-on-a-chip nanotechnology for single-molecule research of biomolecules; bioinforma- tics; and coding and computational recommendations of the mind.
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Extra resources for Physics of bio-molecules and cells. Physique des biomolecules et des cellules: Session LXXV. 2–27 July 2001
Remarkably, it proved possible to produce crystals of the nucleosome complexes. In a landmark achievement of X-ray crystallography, it proved possible to perform diﬀraction experiments on nucleosome crystals and hence to determine their atomic structure , shown in Figure 16. It was found this way that the nucleosome consists of a core of 8 histones, two copies each of H2A, H2B, H3, and H4, in the form a of cylinder with a height of 55 ˚ A, a diameter of 110 ˚ A, and a 2-fold symmetry axis perpendicular to the cylinder.
Tension will increase the energy cost of producing the kink. Let’s compute this energy cost? Assume that the protein binds at the midpoint of a strand of length L. Let the kink angle be π − 2α (see ﬁgure). Now place the DNA strand under a tension F . Fig. 23. A protein/DNA complex under tension. Let s be the arc-length along the DNA, with s = 0 the kink location. The curvature 1/R(s) at s is then dθ/ds, with θ the angle between the tangent and the direction along which the tension is applied. The boundary conditions on θ(s) for large L are θ(0) = α and θ(∞) = 0.
Using the Law of Mass Action, the 18 Physics of Bio-Molecules and Cells equilibrium constant can be obtained by measuring the concentrations, and hence the standard free energy change. The beauty is that we obtain this way an important microscopic quantity, the standard free energy change, by measuring purely macroscopic quantities. When such an experiment is performed in a test-tube (“in vitro”) on a DNA/repressor solution , one ﬁnds that the result is very sensitive to the absence or presence of the operator sequence on the DNA: Keq ≈ 10−10 10−4 operator DNA non − operator DNA.