Physics Reports vol.375

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The phase diagram including the uniform (U), the dimerized (D) spin-Peierls, and the magnetic phase is shown in Fig. 40 [329]. The lattice distortion in the I phase is described by a soliton-like lattice close to the D=I phase boundary with a continuous change to a sinusoidal distortion at higher ÿelds. Further aspects of the I phase are discussed in Refs. [68–70,322,329]. Substitutions and long-range AF order. A very fascinating aspect of this compound is the possibility of substitutions. Several extensive studies of substitution e ects of transition metals on the copper site (Ni [331–333], Co [334], Mg [335], Zn [328,336–341]) and Si on the Ge site [57,328,338,340,342–344] have been performed and summarized in Refs.

An analysis of the triplet dispersion leads to an intradimer interaction J ≈ 60 K while the interdimer exchange coupling constant J⊥ ≈ 18 K is a factor 3 larger compared to the respective coupling constant in KCuCl3 [247,239,240]. The much larger bandwidth of the triplet branches compared with the gap is therefore attributed to a breakdown of the weakly coupled dimer model for TlCuCl3 [239]. Treating the interdimer interactions in mean ÿeld, the magnetic susceptibility can be modelled by the expression (T ) ≈ (ÿ=(3 + exp(ÿJ + ÿJ )) for e ective independent dimers, with ÿ = 1=(kB T ) and J the sum of the interdimer interactions.

5. Early studies found a very sharp peak in Sr 14 Cu24 O41 in (cc) polarization at 3003 cm−1 with a high-energy shoulder forming two broader maxima at 3700 and 4300 cm−1 [179,180]. A similar maximum in (aa) polarization is weaker in intensity and the high-energy peaks are missing. From these peak positions exchange coupling constants J = 1000 cm−1 and J⊥ = 950 cm−1 of the ladder system have been estimated. These experimental data have been theoretically reanalyzed by Freitas et al. [181,182] and Schmidt et al.

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