Polymer Alloys III: Blends, Blocks, Grafts, and by Maurice Morton, N. K. Agarwal, M. Cizmecioglu (auth.),
By Maurice Morton, N. K. Agarwal, M. Cizmecioglu (auth.), Daniel Klempner, Kurt C. Frisch (eds.)
On this, the dawning of a brand new age in excessive know-how, guy is looking for solutions to more and more advanced difficulties. we're often launching reusable autos into house, designing and construction pcs with doubtless unlimited powers, and constructing refined communications structures utilizing laser expertise, fiber optics, holography, etc., all of which require new and complicated fabrics. Polymer alloys proceed to supply new ideas to the fabrics difficulties, and stay a space of ever expanding study. Polymer alloys are mu1ticomponent macromolecular platforms. The parts should be all at the related chain (as in block co polymers), on facet chains (as in graft copolymers), or in numerous molecules (as in po1yb1ends and interpenetrating polymer networks). the range of morphologies attainable and the synergistic results on final houses proceed to stimulate learn on new polymer alloys. progressively more reviews on synthesis of latest alloys, the kinetics and mecha nisms in their formation, and their characterization, are occurring, in addition to experiences on their processing and purposes. This e-book provides the complaints of the Symposium on Polymer Alloys, backed via the yank Chemical Society's department of natural Coatings and Plastics Chemistry held on the 182nd assembly of the yank Chemical Society in ny, in August, 1981. the latest efforts of scientists and engineers from allover the realm during this more and more vital box are awarded within the following pages.
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Additional info for Polymer Alloys III: Blends, Blocks, Grafts, and Interpenetrating Networks
J. Appl. , 16,1109 (1972). , Appl. , 14-,-1781 (1970). , J. Polym. , A-~ 1267 (1965). , 1980, pp. 69-77. , Plast. and Rubber Mater. 2, 66 (1979). 1, 639 (1977). , Angew Makromol. Chemie, 58/59, 175 (1977). , Passalacqua, V. and Pilati, F. Polymer, ~, 520 (1975). 4, 1977, p. 337-346. CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYMER BLENDS, BLOCK COPOLYMERS, AND GRAFT COPOLYMERS BY FRACTIONATION PROCEDURES USING DEMIXING SOLVENTS Rainer Kuhn Central Research and Development Bayer AG 5090 Leverkusen, W. Germany INTRODUCTION In polymer analysis the scientific and technical importance of polymeric multi-component systems has increased to such an extent that problems whose solution depends on the separation of chemically different polymers are arising more and more frequently.
In most cases the fractionation was complete after one hour in as far as pure polymer blends, and not block or graft copolymers, were concerned. It will be seen later that even the binary solvent system methyl cyclohexane (MCH)/N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF) is suitable for the separation of many chemically different polymers. In this case the fact that the densities of the constituents differ greatly is con- FRACTIONATION PROCEDURES USING DEMIXING SOLVENTS 49 ducive to rapid phase separation. At constant temperature the composition of the phases and thus the fractionation efficiency are independent of the volume fraction of the solvent pairs 1 ,5 RESULTS FOR POLYMER BLENDS Table 2 gives a few examples of the fractionation efficiencies of polymer blends obtainable with binary demixing solvent systems 3 • If a polymer is partly crystalline at the separation temperature, it accumulates in a small intermediate layer between the upper phase and the lower phase, which is of higher density.
J 1: 6 ~"",...... \. / "'- ...... 5 ----3' to 2 o Fig. 2 10-2 mo1e/1; t1 = 90 o e; t2 = l1Soe 0; t1 be concentrated on the surface of the phase boundary with localization of polystyrene branches in the matrix. The rubber phase will remain homogeneous until high conversions. The influence of a higher temperature, t2, on such a system allow formation of the final product with the mean value Mg close to the matrix MW. Temperature increase at the first stage or use of a highly effective initiator graft (BP) promotes the growth of graft branch number at the initial stages of the process with simultaneous diminishing of their length.