Radiation Effects – From Particles to Payloads by 2002 IEEE Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conference

By 2002 IEEE Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conference Short Course Notebook

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MV 2 b2 10. 11. The energy transfer in equation 11 applies to a single collision. Nonetheless, its dependence on is a fundamental result: as the charge of the projectile (Ze) increases, the energy loss increases as the V2 square of the charge because the ion’s electric field is more intense. Faster interactions lead to smaller energy transfers, reflected in the V-2 dependence. Note that the mass of the projectile M does not appear in equation 11. Z2 The calculation needs to account for the many electrons per unit length with which the ion will interact via the impact parameter b.

Figure 15 is the solar corona as seen in x-rays a few hours before the flare and points out the active region with the hot plasma confined to magnetic loops. The flare produced strong emissions of gamma rays (Maso-99). Figure 14. X-ray intensity at 2 different energies on 1997 6-8 November. Figure courtesy of NOAA/SEC Boulder, Colorado. II-19 flare site Figure 15. X-ray image of the Sun showing NOAA active region #8100 that flared on 1997 November 6. Image from the YOHKOH satellite, Lockheed Martin Palo Alto Research Laboratory soft x-ray telescope.

Li-93) successfully modeled the creation of the new radiation belt by having outer zone electrons ride a wave in the magnetosphere created by the interplanetary shock’s impact. Electrons on these field lines have long (months to years) lifetimes. Figure 35 shows the creation of the 1991 March belt in L shell and intensity. The new belt was even measurable for the first few years of the SAMPEX mission in 1994. It is practically impossible to shield any spacecraft components from electrons of such high energy.

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