Representing the New World: The English and French Uses of by Jonathan Hart
By Jonathan Hart
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Extra info for Representing the New World: The English and French Uses of the Example of Spain
Gonneville’s journey home illustrates this point as France was subject to regional rivalries and piracy. After sailing by way of the Azores and Ireland, they came to Jersey and Guernsey, where an English and a Breton pirate attacked them. The Norman expedition could not count on a peaceful passage near Brittany: Gonneville lost 14 people as a result of the ﬁght and gave their names. ” The story did not end there. After l’Espoir was shipwrecked, Essomericq settled in Honﬂeur and married one of the close relatives of his godfather Gonneville, whose name and some of whose goods he inherited.
The French seemed to have made a more concerted effort than the English did in the exploration of the New World from about 1520 to 1542. 71 The Natives were to have no rights of possession of their lands because they did not occupy them as Europeans did—that is, in a permanent civil society or a Christian society. The French and English designs in Europe and overseas were not as successful as their monarchs may have wished: in contrast, the Spanish king grew more and more inﬂuential. François and Henry VIII had both aspired to being the Holy Roman emperor, but the election of the young Charles I of Spain as Emperor Charles V maintained the Habsburg succession and meant that the French king felt that Spain hemmed in France from Flanders through Burgundy and Italy to Spain itself.
The French promised the father and the son that Essomericq would be returned home after twenty moons at the latest. Arosca, according to Gonneville, was interested in the French tools and weapons, which to them was as gold, silver, and gems were to Christians. 65 These early voyages involved death. The kidnapping of Natives occurred on Gonneville’s voyage as it had on Columbus’s. On the way home, the French were stricken with sickness. A debate began on whether Namoa, the 35– to 40–year old companion of Essomericq who developed a terrible fever, should be baptized.