Representing the New World: The English and French Uses of by Jonathan Hart

By Jonathan Hart

Jonathan Hart has 3 major ambitions during this cutting edge examine of the texts of exploration and eu colonization: to teach the complexity of trip in addition to the significance of its depictions for Spain, France and England; to provide the ambivalent and contradictory responses of France and England to Spain over the interval; and to illustrate the significance of translations in either disseminating and shaping wisdom surrounding the colonizing of the recent global. by means of combining 3 significant cultural traditions – France, England, Spain – the writer unearths interesting interactions in regards to the approach the recent global was once represented in writing, and he makes colossal contributions to our figuring out of the political and social context of those writings. this permits major reassessments of the early glossy Atlantic world’s conception of the Americas in either a collective experience and in keeping with the several dynamics of every country.

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Gonneville’s journey home illustrates this point as France was subject to regional rivalries and piracy. After sailing by way of the Azores and Ireland, they came to Jersey and Guernsey, where an English and a Breton pirate attacked them. The Norman expedition could not count on a peaceful passage near Brittany: Gonneville lost 14 people as a result of the fight and gave their names. ” The story did not end there. After l’Espoir was shipwrecked, Essomericq settled in Honfleur and married one of the close relatives of his godfather Gonneville, whose name and some of whose goods he inherited.

The French seemed to have made a more concerted effort than the English did in the exploration of the New World from about 1520 to 1542. 71 The Natives were to have no rights of possession of their lands because they did not occupy them as Europeans did—that is, in a permanent civil society or a Christian society. The French and English designs in Europe and overseas were not as successful as their monarchs may have wished: in contrast, the Spanish king grew more and more influential. François and Henry VIII had both aspired to being the Holy Roman emperor, but the election of the young Charles I of Spain as Emperor Charles V maintained the Habsburg succession and meant that the French king felt that Spain hemmed in France from Flanders through Burgundy and Italy to Spain itself.

The French promised the father and the son that Essomericq would be returned home after twenty moons at the latest. Arosca, according to Gonneville, was interested in the French tools and weapons, which to them was as gold, silver, and gems were to Christians. 65 These early voyages involved death. The kidnapping of Natives occurred on Gonneville’s voyage as it had on Columbus’s. On the way home, the French were stricken with sickness. A debate began on whether Namoa, the 35– to 40–year old companion of Essomericq who developed a terrible fever, should be baptized.

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