Robinson: Modern Dairy Technology: Volume 1 Advances in Milk by M. J. Lewis (auth.), R. K. Robinson (eds.)

By M. J. Lewis (auth.), R. K. Robinson (eds.)

The dairy is, in lots of nations, an incredible contributor to the producing means of the meals zone, and as extra parts of milk are utilised in processed meals, so this value is probably going to develop. Already dairy operations variety from the easy dealing with of liquid milk via to the creation of hugely refined shopper goods, and it really is of word that every one this job is predicated on a uncooked fabric that's simply perishable at ambient temperatures. This aggressive, advertisement place, including the truth that most people has a excessive regard for dairy items, is a sign of the level to which milk manufacturers and processors have mixed to make sure that retail prO(;lucts are either nutritious and hygienically applicable. fulfillment of those goals, and at average price, has depended in huge degree at the advances which were made within the dealing with of huge volumes of milk. therefore, factories designed to deal with hundreds of thousands of litres of milk every week are actually typical, and it's the plant and gear concerned that offers the authentic history for this two-volume book.

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The following values were recorded. Indirect UHT: Direct UHT: B*=1'25; B*=2'18; C*=0'49 C*=0'30 This simple comparison shows that microbial inactivation is greater, whereas chemical damage is less for the direct process. This approach is extremely useful as it allows a direct comparison of all UHT processes. Reuter (1984) summarised the difference in performance by describing three types of UHT plant. First generation Direct steam injection with rapid heating and cooling, and low overall chemical damage.

B) Weaker sulphydryl or cabbage odour with residual 'cooked' flavour. (c) Residual 'cooked' flavour with normal, acceptable agreeable flavour. Secondary Phase (d) Normal, acceptable to agreeable flat, acceptable flavour. (e) Flat, acceptable to mild, oxidised flavour. (f) Incipient oxidised flavour (or rancidity) to pronounced rancidity. UHT milk is best consumed while in stages (c) and (d), and it can be seen that the flavour changes taking place during storage are considerable. Furthermore, such changes are very much influenced by the storage temperature, as well as dissolved oxygen levels, with a much faster progression through the above mentioned sequence of events taking place at higher temperatures.

FLAVOUR IMPROVEMENT There have been several attempts to improve the flavour of VHT milks. Potassium iodate (10-20 ppm) has been used to reduce the amount of 'cooked' flavour in milk, by causing the oxidation of any exposed sulphydryl groups (Skudder et al. 1981), and it was also found that the presence of potassium iodate reduced denaturation of oc-lactalbumin, probably by not allowing sulphydryl disulphide exchange reactions to Heat treatment of milk 51 occur. The presence of free -SH groups encourages the formation of protein aggregates on heated surfaces and the addition of L-cysteine before UHT processing resulted in a massive increase in the amount of deposit, as well as a most unacceptable 'cabbagey' or 'sulphury' flavour.

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