Safe Design and Operation of Process Vents and Emission by Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS

By Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS

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Effects of Pressures Above Normal on Limits of Carbon Monoxide in Air Reducing pressure below atmospheric pressure initially has little effect on flammable limits until reaching about 300 m m Hg. Below 300 m m Hg, the LFL and UFL converge and typically meet at about 50 -150 m m H g and, with further reductions, the mixture ceases to be ignitable (Figure 4-5) [Ref. 440, page 42]. 6 Flammable Limits of Combined Gas Streams Many industrial process streams consist of a mixture of several materials with different flammable limits.

By maintaining the flammable gas composition above its upper flammable limit, such as by adding fuel gas • Designing the process to include explosion venting, explosion isolation valves, flame arrestors, detonation arrestors, or chemical isolation (explosion suppression) Where practical, potential ignition sources should be eliminated. Although it is desirable to eliminate all ignition sources, this is not considered a reliable layer of safety on its own merit due to the number of potential sources and practical aspects such as assuring the integrity of grounding systems.

Chemical Process Safety: Fundamentals with Applications, 2nd Edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. 4 COMBUSTION AND FLAMMABILITY This chapter discusses combustion and flammability phenomena that may be encountered in the design and operation of vent header systems handling flammable gases and vapors. Combustions are exothermic reactions involving fuels and oxidizers, where the energy release is sufficient to cause a rapid rise in temperature. In most cases, this is accompanied by a visible flame or glow.

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