Safety Improvements in Low-Power, Shutdown Modes

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It turned out to be one of the major studies as far as the applications of innovative methods and approaches. The study considered both internal and external initiators and Level 2 Analysis. Limited Level 3 Analysis was partially performed. The study considered two types of outages considered: long cycle type and short cycle type. It was found that the differences are small and mostly depend on the duration of the cycle. As in other SLP PSAs, midloop operation is a high contributor. Fire is the dominant initiator in terms of contribution to total CDF for non-power state.

However, the results clearly indicated that the mid loop operation is the most critical configuration, and that there is a need for maintaining redundancies even during the shutdown. The Seabrook plant was backfitted (mostly improvements of procedures and administrative regulations, but also some hardware improvements/enhancements) even before its commercial operation and the risk during shutdown mode (which was even higher that for the power operation) was reduced to an acceptable level. The US-NRC does not require utilities to perform their plant specific SLP PSA studies, but in the light of operational events which occurred during shutdown state, the USNRC Rule on “Shutdown and LowPower Operation” was proposed aiming at strengthening configuration control during outages.

Interesting ones are the definition of every outage as a project (which require specific safety analysis) and definition of “umbrella” schedules, where a series of interconnected systems or trains are maintained at the same time. A shutdown study is also underway for Ringhals 2 NPP. 3 Country’s Activities - Germany In Germany, the Regulatory Authority does not require performance of a plant specific SLP PSAs. The effort concentrated on limited Shutdown analysis on typical PWR and BWR reactors. For a typical BWR reactor, a coarse study was completed in 1992.

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